Lecture 06

Lecture 06 - 9 Poison by mercury and arsenic: treatment...

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0 Lecture 6 Citric Acid Cycle (II)
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1 Regulation of citric acid cycle regulation of the commitment step
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2 Regulation of citric acid cycle Allosteric regulation
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3 Regulation of citric acid cycle Covalent modification of the enzyme Ca 2+ , hormones Phosphate deficiency -> inactive PDH -> glucose to lactate -> high blood levels of lactic acid -> tissue malfunction (CNS)
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4 Regulation of citric acid cycle Isocitrate dehydrogenase α -ketoglutarate dehydrogenase Amino acid and purine bases Halt glycolysis source of acetyl CoA for fatty acid synthesis
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5 Citric acid cycle is a source of biosynthetic precursors
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6 Replenishing citric acid cycle
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7 Berberi is caused by lack of thiomine ¾ Damage to peripheral nervous system: Pain in the limbs, weakness of the musculature, distorted skin sensation ¾ Cardiac symptoms: enlarged heart, inadequate cardiac output ¾ Deficiency of thiamine pyrophospate affects pyruvate dehydrogenase, α -ketoglutarate dehydrogenase, transketolase ¾ Nervous system relies on glucose as its only fuel
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8 Mad as a hatter: use mercury nitrate to soften and shape animal furs Poison by mercury and arsenic
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Unformatted text preview: 9 Poison by mercury and arsenic: treatment with sulfhydryl reagents 10 Glyxolate Bypass: Making fat into sugar In eukaryotes (plants and fungi), there is specialized organelle glyoxysome Also in bacteria Mitochondrial oxaloacetate transported as aspartate to glyoxysome In glyoxysome, aspartate made back into oxaloacetate Citric acid cycle starts But diverges after isocitrate 11 Glyxolate Bypass: Making fat into sugar 12 Divergence: Isocitrate Lysase Glyoxysome Mitochondrion Succinate goes back into mitochondrial citric acid cycle 13 Glyoxylate condenses with Acetyl-CoA Acetyl-CoA fed into gluconeogenesis, rather than broken down to 2 CO 2 So, Acetyl-CoA from fatty acid breakdown can make glucose Malate Synthase 14 Glyoxylate vs. citric acid cycle NADH NADH GTP/ATP FADH 2 NADH Gluconeogenesis 15 Glyoxylate Pathway Tb and Candida Glyoxylate Pathway Not in animals Nature 412:83 (2001). Nature 406:735 (2000). 16 Glyoxylate vs. citric acid cycle Targets of antimicrobials...
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This note was uploaded on 01/23/2010 for the course CHEM 674121 taught by Professor Wang,wei during the Winter '10 term at UCSD.

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Lecture 06 - 9 Poison by mercury and arsenic: treatment...

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