Lecture 02

Lecture 02 - Lecture 2 Glycolysis 1 How to study metabolism...

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1 Lecture 2 Glycolysis
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2 How to study metabolism Overall reaction Key metabolites (i.e. reactants, products and intermediates) Key mechanisms Regulation (i.e., rate-determining steps and key enzymes) Chemical logic behind pathways
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3 General Features:Compartments Oxidative Phosphorylation — mitochondrion Glycolysis — cytoplasm Compartments, therefore transport required Plant Cell Animal Cell
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4 • Glucose enters cell through glucose transporters • Or, glucose from breakdown of polysaccharides (glycogen from liver, dietary starches) • Or, glucose from biosynthesis (gluconeogenesis) from noncarbohydrate precursors Where does the glucose come from?
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5 Glucose (6 carbons) converted to two molecules of pyruvate (3 carbons) and 2 molecules of ATP (energy capture), with 2 molecules of NAD + reduced to NADH, in 10 reactions. Overall reaction
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6 10 reactions: 3 stages Energy Investment Recouping the investment 6 carbons 2 x 3 carbons Net 2 ATP and 2 NADH
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7 Glucose First step: Getting a phosphate on carbon #6. Why?
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1. Hexokinase (kinase — phosphorylation First step: Getting a phosphate on carbon #6. Why? (1) G6P cannot diffuse across membrane
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Lecture 02 - Lecture 2 Glycolysis 1 How to study metabolism...

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