Chapter_4_words - carbocations , carbanions , free radicals...

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ORGANIC CHEMISTRY LANEY COLLEGE CHEM 12A Version 2.0, 9/1/06 Chapter 4 Learning Objectives and Terminology Radical reactions always have three steps: Initiation, Propagation, and Termination. Explain the mechanism and energetics of the free-radical halogenation of alkanes. Based on the selectivity of halogenation, predict the products of halogenation of an alkane. Calculate free-energy changes from equilibrium constants and vice versa . Determine the order of a reaction, and suggest a possible mechanism based on its rate equation. Use energy diagrams to discuss transition states (TS), activation energies (E a ), intermediates, and rate- determining step of a multi-step reaction. Describe the structures of
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Unformatted text preview: carbocations , carbanions , free radicals , and carbenes , and structural features that stabilize them. Explain which are electrophilic and which are nucleophilic. The Hammond postulate allows one to predict the structure of the transition state (), which can resemble the product ( product-like or late TS ) or the reactants ( reactant-like or In any chemical reaction the rate ( k ) is governed by the free energy of activation (E a aka G ). In a multi-step reaction the overall rate is limited by the rate-limiting step, which the step with slowest rate and is generally the step with the highest energy transition state (highest point on curve). early TS )....
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This note was uploaded on 01/23/2010 for the course CHEM 12A taught by Professor Corlett during the Spring '07 term at Laney College.

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