Topic 1 WeeksChp1[5th]

Topic 1 WeeksChp1[5th] - [HTLV III genome nucleotide...

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Chapter 1 [Weeks, Alcamo] – Overview of the AIDS Epidemic (pgs. 2 – 14, 22 – 26) I. 20 th Century Medicine – infectious diseases “under control” II. Early years of the epidemic [Table 1.1, pg. 26] A. First report: June, 1981 (Dr. Michael Gottlieb) B. Additional reports: USA, Europe C. GRID (1981) AIDS (1982) D. Various hypotheses as to cause 1. Chemical agent; e.g., amyl nitrate 2. Infectious agent(s); e.g., multiple sexually-transmitted pathogens or Cytomegalovirus (CMV) E. Isolation of retroviruses (1983 - 84) 1. Barre-Sinnousi, Montagnier: Lymphadenopathy virus (LAV) 2. Gallo et al.: Human T-cell lymphotrophic virus (HTLV) III 3. Levy et al.: AIDS-associated retrovirus (ARV) [not mentioned in Weeks text] 4. Genetic study confirms viruses are the ‘same’ – named HIV-1 (1986)
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Unformatted text preview: [HTLV III genome nucleotide sequence is virtually identical to LAV] F. Development of a blood test in Gallo’s lab (1985) G. Recognition of global pandemic (1985) H. Isolation of a second virus from African patients, HIV-2, by Montagnier et al. (1985) I. First antiretroviral drug (AZT) licensed (1987) III. Origin of HIV A. Simian immunodeficiency viruses – first discovered in mid 1980’s (i.e., after HIV-1) B. Cross species ‘jump’ of SIV into humans on multiple occasions [read also, Box 1.2] 1. HIV-1 from SIV cpz 2. HIV-2 from SIV sm C. HIV in the USA 1. Box 1.3, pg. 20 2. Archived sera from homosexual men, San Francisco – compare rates of HIV-1 positive samples between 1978 (3%), 1979 (12%), 1981 (45%) IV. Review: Questions 1 – 8, 12 – 14...
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