Topic 8 Talaro7th-Chapter 14

Topic 8 Talaro7th-Chapter 14 - Chapter 14[Talaro...

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Chapter 14 [Talaro] – Nonspecific Host Defenses I. Overview [Table 14.1; Fig. 14.21] A. Inborn (i.e., innate), nonspecific immunity B. Acquired, specific immunity II. Barriers at, and within, the ‘portals’ of entry [Fig. 14.1] A. Physical & anatomical barriers 1. Skin: dead cells compose outermost layer, sweat glands, sebaceous glands 2. Mucous membranes: mucus, saliva, tears [mechanical action of fluid flow] 3. Respiratory tract: nasal hair, rhinitis, ciliary escalator, sneezing/coughing [Fig. 14.2] 4. Alimentary/gastrointestinal tract: peristalsis 5. Genitourinary tract: urine flow B. Chemical defenses 1. Lysozyme 2. Acidic pH - skin (fatty acids) - stomach (hydrochloric acid) - vaginal tract (lactic acid produced by normal microbial flora) 3. Digestive enzymes, bile C. Genetic defenses: expression of variant/mutated genes can affect susceptibility to specific pathogens [e.g. mutated hemogloblin gene (sickle cell) affords some protection from malaria] 1. Viral attachment to cells requires specific receptors 2. Not all individuals have the required receptors
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