Topic 10 Chp14_NSHostDefenseP

Topic 10 Chp14_NSHostDefenseP - Chapter14...

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Chapter 14 Nonspecific Host Defenses
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Host defenses:    Innate (nonspecific) and Adaptive (specific) Immunity Nonspecific defenses: - No distinction between ‘invading’ microbes - No amplified response over time Antibodies, cell-mediated immunity
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Physical / Anatomical / Chemical Barriers [Block microbes at portals of entry] Host defenses  Skin / Mucous  membranes  Perspiration – salts,  fatty acids  Saliva – lysozyme   Hydrochloric acid in  stomach (pH ~ 3 – 4) Portals of entry:   Respiratory tract  Digestive tract  Genitourinary tract
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Mucous membranes [specialized ciliated cells in respiratory tract] Mucociliary escalator in larynx, trachea, into bronchioles
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Fluid flow:  mechanical force “out” Tears with lysozyme Blood flow Saliva with lysozyme Peristalsis Urination 
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Chemical defenses Lysozyme in saliva - breaks sugar linkages in peptidoglycan Hydrochloric acid, digestive enzymes in stomach - degrades macromolecules, including proteins Bile from storage in gall bladder, enters intestine - works like surfactant [a.k.a., emulsifier (like soap)]
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Topic 10 Chp14_NSHostDefenseP - Chapter14...

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