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Topic 14 HIV_StructureReplicationP

Topic 14 HIV_StructureReplicationP - OntheoriginsofHIV...

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On the origins of HIV
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Origin of HIVs:   Cross-species transmission based on SIV/HIV genomic  sequence comparisons HIV-1 from chimpanzees (SIV cpz ) HIV-2 from sooty mangabeys (SIV sm )
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SIV cpz  (closely related to HIV) isolated  from wild chimps in Camaroon (2006)
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Genetic Relatedness of HIV Isolates  (based on genome sequences) From: Weeks & Alcamo, AIDS: The Biological Basis (4 th ed), Jones & Barlett (2006).
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HIV-1 Genetic Subtypes [i.e., clades] Group M, Group N, Group O represent 3 independent primate – human  transmission events Group M:  Global distribution; further classified into clades #  [A, B, C . .] Group N:  Cameroon Group O:  West-central Africa [# clade = taxonomic group whose members share a single common ancestor] C irculating  R ecombinant  F orms [Growing evidence that Group “O” viruses may have originated in gorillas]
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Global Distribution of HIV-1 Clades From: Frontline: The Age of AIDS
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Human Immunodeficiency Virus – 1  Structure & Replication
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HIV is a Retrovirus – it belongs to the  Lentivirus* subfamily Other Lentiviruses: Visna virus EIAV BIV FIV SIV  (discovered after HIV) * Lentiviruses are genetically much more complex than ‘standard’  Retroviruses.
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Human Immunodeficiency Virus [HIV] Virion structure:  enveloped virus capsid [p24] matrix [p17] spikes [gp120 + gp41] Nucleocapsid contains: 2 ss(+)RNAs as genome [~10,000 ribonucleotides] Reverse transcriptase (RT) Integrase (assoc. w/ RT) Protease Spikes exist as trimers [sets of  3 (gp120+gp41)]
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“Simple” Retrovirus Genome 7,000 – 11,000 ribonucleotides long Encodes 3 – 4 viral genes - gag gene encodes capsid proteins - pol gene encodes reverse transcriptase & integrase - env gene encodes envelope (spike) proteins - pro gene encodes protease Avian leukemia virus Murine leukemia virus
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HIV-1 and HIV-2 HIVs encode many more proteins than ‘simple’ retroviruses.
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