Topic 15 HIV Disease & AIDSP

Topic 15 HIV Disease & AIDSP - HIV1invivo...

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HIV-1  in vivo Exposure . . . Infection . . . Disease Exposure . . . Infection
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What is HIV’s Portal of Exit? Blood Breast milk Seminal fluid Cervical-vaginal secretions Saliva
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What is HIV’s Portal of Entry? Direct exposure Transmucosal exposure  - Rectal  - Vaginal - Oral  - Note:  mucosal inflammation enhances risk of transmission,  esp. if there is ulceration Injection of contaminated fluid, e.g. blood Vertical transmission [mother to baby] - in utero , peri- or post-natal (through breast feeding)  “Amount” of virus and/or number of exposures  contributes to risk of infection Infectious dose
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Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue [MALT]   are distributed in tissues  underlying mucosal  membranes  Underlie intestinal/gut   (GI), respiratory , and  genital-urinary  tracts.   HIV may directly  contact potential targets  underlying mucosal  membranes IEL – intraepithellial lymphocyte LP – lamina propria ILF – intestinal lymphoid follicle PP – Peyer’s patch
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Gut-associated Lymphoid Tissues* IEL LP ILF [e.g. Peyer’s Patches (PP)] *GALT = MALT of the gastrointestinal  (GI) system ILF contains T cells, B cells, APC
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Lymphocytes in the Human Body Adult human has ~ 5 - 10 x 10 11  lymphocytes  (total of all B & T cells) - ~2% of total lymphocytes are in the blood - ~10 – 15% of total lymphocytes are found in gut  mucosal tissue - ~5 x 10 9  lymphocytes migrate through the blood per  day - Highest number of lymphocytes (10 11 ) are in lymph  nodes
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CD4 +  T Lymphocytes are a major  target for HIV replication.  
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Topic 15 HIV Disease & AIDSP - HIV1invivo...

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