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Topic 16 HIV Testing_DiagnosisP

Topic 16 HIV Testing_DiagnosisP - ImmuneAssays&HIVDiagnosis...

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Immune Assays & HIV Diagnosis
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Diagnosis of HIV Infection Question:   Is HIV replicating in this person’s body? Options to ‘find’ HIV Detect the virus » OR Detect specific  immune response, i.e. antibody
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Detecting HIV Indirect detection  through HIV-specific antibodies ELISA [EIA] screening confirmed by Western Blot Historically, test uses blood (“gold standard”)   Newer tests use antibody detection in saliva Some labs report unacceptably high false-positives with saliva test Direct detection  of virus particle or viral nucleic acid Growing infectious HIV from clinical sample, most frequently  blood - Done only in research laboratory settings Detection of viral RNA or proviral DNA in blood [or other body  tissue] - PCR technologies - Determine ‘viral load’ (success or failure of treatment) Detection of viral proteins (e.g. p24, gp120)
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Presence of antibody (Ab) against a specific   microbe documents infection by that microbe Antibodies recognize and bind specifically to the  antigen that stimulated their production
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