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Topic 20 Vaccines_GlobalEpidemiologyP

Topic 20 Vaccines_GlobalEpidemiologyP - TheTruthasWeKnowIt...

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The Truth as We Know It HIV establishes a chronic (persistent) infection in  human hosts, establishing latent reservoirs in  long-lived cells [e.g. memory T H  cells] HIV replicates in cells of the adaptive immune  adaptive immune response Drugs are available to suppress HIV replication - Costs can be high - Fewer adverse, short-term side effects in newer drugs - HIV R  mutants emerge To date there is no protective vaccine - Pre-existing immunity to HIV does not prevent  infection (or reinfection)
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Goal of Immunization Production of long-lived memory cells B lymphocytes T H lymphocytes T C lymphocytes Activation of these memory cells produces a much more rapid adaptive immune response upon subsequent antigen (Ag) exposure Production and release of Ag-specific antibody Production of Ag-specific T H and T C cells
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Categories of Candidate HIV Vaccines Inactivated (killed) whole virus Recombinant vaccines - Frequently gp120 protein produced, then purified from  genetically engineered cells Alternate viral ‘vectors’ carrying selected HIV  genes to induce immune response to HIV proteins - HIV genes genetically introduced into adenovirus or  adeno-associated virus  - HIV genes genetically introduced into canarypox virus - HIV genes genetically introduced into vaccinia virus
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HIV Vaccines:  Phase III Clinical Trials [USA, 2002 – 2003] Recombinant vaccine, gp120 [VaxGen] Participants HIV(-) individuals:  5,109 gay men + 309 women 3,330 received vaccine (good immunogenic response as 
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Topic 20 Vaccines_GlobalEpidemiologyP - TheTruthasWeKnowIt...

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