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Chp5 - Chapter 5 The Covalent Bond Theory of Covalent Bond...

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Chapter 5: The Covalent Bond Theory of Covalent Bond Bond Polarity Naming Lewis Structures Resonance Formal Charge and Ox States
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The Covalent Bond REMEMBER : Ionic bond is formed by TRANSFER of electron(s) to unfilled orbital of lower energy Electrons can also be stabilized by interacting with another positive charge (nucleus is a great source of positive charge) Atoms can acquire a noble gas configuration (stable) by sharing electrons with another atom COVALENT BOND – bond formed by sharing of electrons; usually between nonmetals ( ∆χ is small)
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Interaction of 2 H Atoms + + + + + + + + Bond Energy (kJ/mol) 0.74  Å  (bond length) + + 0 -436
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Covalent Bond Length and Energy + + Bond Length (r): 0.74 - 2.7 Å (Å = 100 pm) Bond Energy: 100-1000 kJ/mol Bond Length Bond Energy H 2 0.74 Å 436 kJ/mol I 2 2.7 Å 151 kJ/mol
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Bond Polarity Bond polarity is best described by ∆ χ ∆ χ = 0 ; covalent bond (e - shared equally, H 2 , N 2 , Cl 2 ) ∆ χ small ; polar covalent bond (atom with larger χ becomes e - rich, results in bond dipole, HCl, H 2 O, CH 4 , NH 3 ) ∆ χ large ; ionic bond (e - transferred to atom with larger χ , NaCl, Al(NO 3 ) 3 , NH 4 Cl)
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Bond Dipole
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