Lecture 1 Introduction 080104 Web Final

Lecture 1 Introduction 080104 Web Final - ECE 3040...

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Unformatted text preview: ECE 3040 Microelectronic Circuits ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Prof. Russell D. Dupuis School of Electrical and Computer Engineering Center for Compound Semiconductors Georgia Institute of Technology “Wise people learn when they can; fools learn when they must.” Arthur Wellesley, The Duke of Wellington Buzz says: Don’t get stung! Study every day! Center for Compound Semiconductors/Advanced Materials and Devices Group Semiconductors/Advanced Dupuis The Course Covers Lots of Materials ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------TEXT BOOKS: R. F. Pierret, Semiconductor Device TEXT Semiconductor Fundamentals, Addison Wesley, 1996. ISBN 0-201-54393-1 (required). R. C. Jaeger and Blalock, Microelectronic Circuit Design (3rd Ed.), R. Microelectronic McGraw Hill, 2006. ISBN 978-0-07-319163-8 (required). Materials and Homework: Materials We will primarily cover portions of Chapters 1-11, and 16-18 in Pierret and portions of Chapters 11, 13, 14 in Jaeger with additions from my lecture notes. Lectures and course notes and information will be posted on the WEB-CT Website for this course. You are expected You to read and study the assigned material to be discussed before coming to class. Center for Compound Semiconductors/Advanced Materials and Devices Group Semiconductors/Advanced Dupuis Crystal structure Crystal growth Electrons and atomic structure ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Electronic properties of Crystals Charge carriers in (equilibrium) semiconductors Motion of carriers in semiconductors Excess carriers in semiconductors Carrier lifetime and diffusion p-n junction in equilibrium p-n junction under bias: steady state p-n junction dynamics: nonsteady state Minority carrier injection in BJT’s Majority carrier transport in FET’s MOSFET’s and monolithic devices Electronic circuits! ULSI Center for Compound Semiconductors/AdvancedJOBS!!! and Devices Group Semiconductors/Advanced Materials Dupuis ENIAC Computer System (portion) The First Electronic Computer—1947 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------18,000 vacuum tubes Weight=30 tons “Memory”= storage of 20 ten-digit numbers Center for Compound Semiconductors/Advanced Materials and Devices Group Semiconductors/Advanced Dupuis ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Deep Blue played Deep against the reigning Chess Champion of the world, Gary Kasparov, in May 1997 and won. The 1997 iteration of the Deep Blue computer was a 32-node IBM RS/6000 SP high-performance computer, which utilized the then-new Power Two Super Chip processors (P2SC). Each node of the SP employed a single microchannel card containing 8 dedicated VLSI chess processors, for a total of 256 processors working in tandem. Deep Blue's programming code was written in C and ran under the AIX operating system. The net result was a scalable, highly parallel system capable of calculating 100-200 billion moves within three minutes, which is the time allotted to each player's move in classical chess. Center for Compound Semiconductors/Advanced Materials and Devices Group Semiconductors/Advanced Deep Blue – Something NEW in 1997 NEW The Chess Champion of the World! Dupuis The World’s Fastest Supercomputer ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in the United States Lawrence Built in 2005: BlueGene/L: eServer Blue Gene Solution BlueGene eServer RMAX: 478.2 Tflops RMAX: Rpeak: 596.4 Tflops Rpeak 130,000 processors 130,000 Center for Compound Semiconductors/Advanced Materials and Devices Group Semiconductors/Advanced Dupuis Top Supercomputers in the World ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- The super computer systems ranked #1 since 1993 The IBM Blue Gene/L (since 2004.11) IBM NEC Earth Simulator (2002.06 - 2004.11) NEC IBM ASCI White (2000.11 - 2002.06) IBM Intel ASCI Red (1997.06 - 2000.11) Intel Hitachi (1996.11 - 1997.06) Hitachi Hitachi (1996.06 - 1996.11) Hitachi Fujitsu (1994.11 - 1996.06) Fujitsu Intel Paragon XP/S140 (1994.06 - 1994.11) Intel Fujitsu (1993.11 - 1994.06) Fujitsu TMC (1993.06 - 1993.11) TMC Center for Compound Semiconductors/Advanced Materials and Devices Group Semiconductors/Advanced Dupuis Super Computing Comes to Your Home! ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------The supercomputer you can own: The In 2007, NCSU a professor at NCSU built a supercomputing cluster capable of both high-performance computing and running the latest in computer gaming. This cluster of eight PS3 machines – the first such academic cluster in the world – packs the power of a small supercomputer, but at a total cost of about $5,000, it costs less than some desktop computers that have only a fraction of the computing power. With 10,000 PS3 machines anyone could create the fastest computer in the world http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2007/03/070319205733.htm http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2007/03/070319205733.htm Center for Compound Semiconductors/Advanced Materials and Devices Group Semiconductors/Advanced Dupuis The Sony Playstation 3 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------PS3 combines state-of-the-art technologies featuring Cell, a PS3 Cell, processor jointly developed by IBM, Sony Group and Toshiba Corporation, with 2TB processing capability. It also adopts BD-ROM (Blu-ray Disc ROM) with maximum BD storage capacity of 54 GB (dual layer) , enabling delivery of entertainment content in full high-definition (HD) full quality, under a secure environment made possible through quality the most advanced copyright protection technology. To match the accelerating convergence of digital consumer electronics and computer technology, PS3 supports high quality display in resolution of 1080p(*) as standard. Center for Compound Semiconductors/Advanced Materials and Devices Group Semiconductors/Advanced Dupuis Playstation 3 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------PS3 uses the PS3 latest graphics technology Center for Compound Semiconductors/Advanced Materials and Devices Group Semiconductors/Advanced Dupuis What Changed? ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- We understood semiconductor We materials and devices better! Center for Compound Semiconductors/Advanced Materials and Devices Group Semiconductors/Advanced Dupuis The First Transistor—a Point-Contact Bipolar Device Made of Recycled Ge! ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Transferresistor= Transistor Center for Compound Semiconductors/Advanced Materials and Devices Group Semiconductors/Advanced Dupuis Bell Telephone Labs Murray Hill NJ, Bldg. 1 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Center for Compound Semiconductors/Advanced Materials and Devices Group Semiconductors/Advanced Dupuis Bardeen & Brattain Invented the Transistor! ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------William Shockley, their manager, William took over during the photo-ops—and developed the minority carrier and junction equations. Bardeen Brattain Shockley Center for Compound Semiconductors/Advanced Materials and Devices Group Semiconductors/Advanced Dupuis The Transistor “Inventors” John Bardeen and Walter Brattain invented the first John Walter ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------“transfer resistor” or transistor on December 16, 1947… transistor Bill Shockley added the math and “took over the photo-op”! Bill Center for Compound Semiconductors/Advanced Materials and Devices Group Semiconductors/Advanced Dupuis The First p-n Junction—1940: Russell Ohl ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Born: 31 January 1898 Died: 1987 Born: In 1940 Ohl was working with a silicon sample that had a In silicon crack down its middle. He was using an ohmmeter to test the electrical resistance of the sample when he noted that when the sample was exposed to light, the current that flowed between the two sides of the crack made a significant jump. It was known that other semiconductors, such as selenium, generated a small current when exposed to light, but the cracked silicon sample was quite a curiosity. Ohl showed the sample to his colleagues and together they deduced that the crack was a fortunate accident: It marked the dividing line that had occurred when the molten silicon froze in the crucible. At that moment, various impurities or contaminants in the silicon had been isolated into different regions, with the crack separating them. As a result, the As Russell Ohl, Bell Labs Russell silicon atoms in the region on one side of the crack had extra electrons around them. The other region was the opposite; its crystallized silicon had a slight shortage of electrons. They named the two regions p and n—p for positive-type and n for negative-type. The barrier between the impurities was called the p-n junction. The junction represented a barrier, preventing the excess electrons in the n-region from traveling over to the pregion, where atomic forces naturally drew them. Center for Compound Semiconductors/Advanced Materials and Devices Group Semiconductors/Advanced Dupuis John Bardeen—Nobel Prize in Physics for the Transistor—1957; BCS Superconductivity—1971 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Center for Compound Semiconductors/Advanced Materials and Devices Group Semiconductors/Advanced Dupuis Bardeen’s Two-Transistor Oscillator Amplifier Circuit ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Point-contact bipolar Ge transistor Center for Compound Semiconductors/Advanced Materials and Devices Group Semiconductors/Advanced Dupuis Semiconductor Materials Technology Advances—1961 to 1999 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Si GaAs Ge Center for Compound Semiconductors/Advanced Materials and Devices Group Semiconductors/Advanced Dupuis ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------The First Microprocessor— the Intel MCS-4004 (Si MOS devices--1971) The First Integrated Circuit and the First Microprocessor Kilby’s first Ge integrated circuit made at Texas Instruments--1958 Center for Compound Semiconductors/Advanced Materials and Devices Group Semiconductors/Advanced Dupuis Jack St. Clair Kilby—The Gentle Giant ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------There are few men whose insights There and professional accomplishments have changed the world. Jack Kilby is one of these men. His invention of the monolithic integrated circuit - the microchip - some 45 years ago at Texas Instruments (TI) laid the conceptual and technical foundation for the entire field of modern microelectronics. It was this breakthrough that made possible the sophisticated high-speed computers and large-capacity semiconductor (Died June 20, 2005) (Died memories of today's information age. Center for Compound Semiconductors/Advanced Materials and Devices Group Semiconductors/Advanced Dupuis Robert Noyce—The Mayor of Silicon Valley ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Robert Noyce (December 12, 1927 Robert – June 3, 1990), nicknamed the the Mayor of Silicon Valley, cofounded Fairchild Semiconductor in 1957 and Intel in 1968. He is also credited (along with Jack Kilby) with the invention of the integrated circuit or microchip. He joined William Shockley at the He Shockley Semiconductor Laboratory division of Beckman Instruments, but left with the "Traitorous Eight" to create the influential Fairchild Semiconductor corporation. Semiconductor Center for Compound Semiconductors/Advanced Materials and Devices Group Semiconductors/Advanced Dupuis Motorola’s Six-Level Cu Interconnect for Power PC G4 Microprocessors ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Center for Compound Semiconductors/Advanced Materials and Devices Group Semiconductors/Advanced Dupuis The Intel Pentium© 4 Core— The “State of the Art ICs” in 2004 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------90 nm Process technology Clock speed: 2.80 to 3.80 GHz L2 cache: 1MB Center for Compound Semiconductors/Advanced Materials and Devices Group Semiconductors/Advanced Dupuis The Growth of Large Single-Crystal Si Boules For 12 in. Diameter Wafers ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Center for Compound Semiconductors/Advanced Materials and Devices Group Semiconductors/Advanced Dupuis The Diamond/Zinc-Blende Semiconductors ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Center for Compound Semiconductors/Advanced Materials and Devices Group Semiconductors/Advanced Dupuis ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Yellow, Red LEDs Blue Green Red Si, Ge, II-VI and III-V Semiconductors: Bandgap Energy vs. “ao” Lattice Constant High-Speed Electronics Cell Phone PAs MOSFETs, CMOS Optical Communications Dupuis Center for Compound Semiconductors/Advanced Materials and Devices Group Semiconductors/Advanced The Solid-State Lighting Challenge ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Lighting accounts for ~20% of global electricity consumption Lighting If 150 lm/W solid-state white source were developed If Having an ~ 50% power conversion (or “wall-plug”) efficiency, e.g., Having like today’s best red/infrared III-V LED and laser diode performance There would be a potential 10% reduction in global consumption There electricity Saving ~1000 TWh/year in energy (or $100B/year in cost) Saving Resulting in ~200M tons/year global carbon emission reduction Resulting Center for Compound Semiconductors/Advanced Materials and Devices Group Semiconductors/Advanced Dupuis The Problem: Edison’s Electric Light ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Center for Compound Semiconductors/Advanced Materials and Devices Group Semiconductors/Advanced Dupuis What About LED Lighting? As it turns out, a 100-watt light bulb actually uses 101.5 watts of electricity. Over 50,000 As hours (which would require replacing it 50 times with a new bulb), will use 5,075 kilowatt-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------it per kilowatt-hour). So a hours of electricity, costing approximately $500 (based on ten cents 100-watt light bulb actually costs you $500 to operate over 50,000 hours. On top of 100 that, it produces a whopping 10,150 pounds of carbon dioxide emissions which directly promote global warming and climate change. Mercury is also released into the atmosphere from all the energy usage, thanks to the fact that much of the electricity consumed in the world comes from coal-fired power plants that emit toxic mercury into the air. So the Total Cost of Ownership for a 100-watt light bulb is well over $500 for producing 50,000 hours of light. In contrast, what is the Total Cost of Ownership for our 10-watt EcoLEDs light bulb? The LED light itself costs about $100 up front. It uses 10.8 watts of electricity, which adds up to 540 kilowatt-hours over 50,000 hours. That's about $54 in electricity, vs. the $500 needed to power the 100-watt bulb mentioned above. Plus, our 10-watt LED light reduces CO2 emissions by 9,000 pounds, producing only about 1,080 pounds of CO2 instead of the 10,150 pounds produced from a 100-watt incandescent bulb. The Total Cost of Ownership for a 10-watt LED light bulb is $100 for the light, and $54 in electricity for producing 50,000 hours of light. Thus, the LED light is $154 vs. $550 or so (electricity + the cost of replacement bulbs) for incandescent lights. Which brings us to the question: How much would you rather pay for 50,000 hours How of light? $154 or $550? It makes obvious financial sense to pay only $154, especially when you're also protecting the environment at the same time. Center for Compound Semiconductors/Advanced Materials and Devices Group Semiconductors/Advanced Dupuis LEDs are becoming more advanced LEDs ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- The Next Bright Idea: LED’s for Lighting Center for Compound Semiconductors/Advanced Materials and Devices Group Semiconductors/Advanced Dupuis LED Lighting Fixtures LR6 – 65 W Replacement ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Uses InGaN LEDs with white phosphors to achieve warm white Uses Center for Compound Semiconductors/Advanced Materials and Devices Group Semiconductors/Advanced Dupuis LEDs for General Illumination: LLF LR6 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Friendly’s Restaurant has installed LLF LR6 recessed LED lights Friendly Center for Compound Semiconductors/Advanced Materials and Devices Group Semiconductors/Advanced Dupuis The Next New York City Street Light— White LEDs! ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Center for Compound Semiconductors/Advanced Materials and Devices Group Semiconductors/Advanced Dupuis The Diamond/Zinc-Blende Semiconductors ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Center for Compound Semiconductors/Advanced Materials and Devices Group Semiconductors/Advanced Dupuis Holonyak’s GaAsP Laser Diode and Crystalline GaAsP Ingot ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Laser was fabricated from a Laser large single-crystal region from the polycrystalline ingot The natural facet formation The occurs on the (110) faces Holonyak first proposed Holonyak cleaving laser facets The polycrystalline nature of The this material created problems that delayed his progress He finally decided to polish the He facets after Hall operated a polished-facet GaAs laser Dupuis Center for Compound Semiconductors/Advanced Materials and Devices Group Semiconductors/Advanced Holonyak’s Early GaAsP Injection Laser–the First Diode Laser Photographed with It’s Own Light ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Laser Diode Wire Bond Contact Red Laser Light Scattered Light Heat Sink Dr. Nick Holonyak, Jr. made the first visible laser diode of GaAsP and demonstrated it in October 1962 at General Electric in Syracuse, NY Center for Compound Semiconductors/Advanced Materials and Devices Group Semiconductors/Advanced 0.2 mm Dupuis Nick Holonyak, Jr. in 1962 Examining the First Visible Semiconductor Laser ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Center for Compound Semiconductors/Advanced Materials and Devices Group Semiconductors/Advanced Dupuis Holonyak’s LEDs and Lasers Were the First Offered for Sale—the First Commercial III-V Light Emitters In 1963, General Electric is the first to offer LEDs and lasers commercially—In 1965 they appear in the Allied Radio Catalog GaAs 77K IR Laser @$650 each GaAs GaAsP 77K Visible Laser $1300 each GaAsP GaAsP LED @$350 each GaAsP GaAs IR LED @$45 each GaAs Original announced prices were 2x Original higher! Center for Compound Semiconductors/Advanced Materials and Devices Group Semiconductors/Advanced ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Dupuis Wall Street Journal Advertisement— May 1971 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------In 1971, Monsanto was In the worlds’ largest producer of GaAs substrates and GaAsP LEDs Using hydride VPE, Using they developed red and then yellow and green N-doped GaAsP alloys for large scale LED production Center for Compound Semiconductors/Advanced Materials and Devices Group Semiconductors/Advanced Dupuis Evolution of LED Efficiency Following The Alloy Road Vapor-Phase Epitaxy, Liquid-Phase Epitaxy Vapor Deposition Best Lab Device Red Fluorescent Lamp Shaped AlInGaP/GaAs Red-Orange-Yellow Red- OrangeTransparent Substrate AlInGaP/GaAs Red-Orange-Yellow Red- OrangeUnfiltered Incandescent Lamp Yellow Filtered Incandescent Lamp AlInGaP/GaAs Red-Orange-Yellow Red- OrangeAlGaAs/AlGaAs Red Red Filtered Incandescent Lamp AlGaAs/AlGaAs Red GaAsP:N Red-Orange-Yellow Red- OrangeGaP:N Green GaP:Zn-O GaP:ZnRed InGaN Green Blue InGaN Blue White Green Latest Value White 150L/W ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Metalorganic Chemical Edison’s First Edison’ Light Bulb Holonyak’s Holonyak’ First Commercial LED GaAsP Red ~10X/decade Ga0.6As0.4P Red Center for Compound Semiconductors/Advanced Materials and Devices Group Semiconductors/Advanced Dupuis Holonyak and Bardeen Examine One of the First Yellow InGaP LEDs in the Early 1970s ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Nick Holonyak, Jr. John Bardeen Center for Compound Semiconductors/Advanced Materials and Devices Group Semiconductors/Advanced Dupuis LEDs – Back to the Future—Dec. 1999 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------White LED head lights, Red LED tail lights Center for Compound Semiconductors/Advanced Materials and Devices Group Semiconductors/Advanced Dupuis Current Examples of LED Lighting ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Center for Compound Semiconductors/Advanced Materials and Devices Group Semiconductors/Advanced Dupuis The 2008 Audi R8~ $120K: White LEDs Headlights and Daytime Running Lights ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Five white LED cluster Center for Compound Semiconductors/Advanced Materials and Devices Group Semiconductors/Advanced Dupuis 2007 Audi R8 Uses White LED Headlights, Taillights, and CHMSL ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Audi says that its new Audi R8 mid-engined sports car will be the first series-production car Audi to offer the option of ordering all the headlight functions – dipped beam, main beam, option daytime running lights and indicators – as LEDs. The option will become available from the end of 2007 onwards. Although LEDs will not be approved in the European region as a light source for headlights Although until 2008 at the earliest, Audi has applied for an exemption that will allow it to use LED technology before then. There are no such restrictions in North America, where Lexus Lexus plans to launch a vehicle with LED headlights in 2007. Center for Compound Semiconductors/Advanced Materials and Devices Group Semiconductors/Advanced Dupuis The Nextus Lexus ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------LED head and tail lights LED Center for Compound Semiconductors/Advanced Materials and Devices Group Semiconductors/Advanced Dupuis Mobile LED Displays! ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Pimpstar LED Wheels Pimpstar http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kb3THwZjnHY http:// Center for Compound Semiconductors/Advanced Materials and Devices Group Semiconductors/Advanced Dupuis NASDAQ Digital Display Times Square ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------World’s 2nd largest World video screen Full color display Full using RGB LEDs Display uses Display 18,677,760 LEDs covering 10,736 ft2 Center for Compound Semiconductors/Advanced Materials and Devices Group Semiconductors/Advanced Dupuis The New Coke! ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Center for Compound Semiconductors/Advanced Materials and Devices Group Semiconductors/Advanced Dupuis The Old Coke and The New Coke! ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1991 to October 2002 Inaugurated July 1, 2004: $3.6M, 44x65 ft, 2.5M LEDs, 822K Pixels, 2 controllers, 6 video processors, 3-D curved panels Dupuis Center for Compound Semiconductors/Advanced Materials and Devices Group Semiconductors/Advanced High Growth Rate of LED Markets ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------The overall market is The forecast to grow at an average annual rate of 21% to reach $4.7 billion in 2007. The market for HB-LEDs in The illumination is forecast to grow at 44% per year, double the overall rate, to reach $520 million in 2007. Beyond 2007, the market Beyond for HB-LEDs in illumination is expected to continue to grow, resulting in the capture of a significant fraction of the world lighting market after 2010 Center for Compound Semiconductors/Advanced Materials and Devices Group Semiconductors/Advanced Dupuis Times Square New Year’s Eve Ball Drop ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------History of the Times Square New Year's Eve Ball History Revelers began celebrating New Year's Eve in Times Square as Revelers early as 1904, but it was in 1907 that the New Year's Eve Ball made its maiden descent from the flagpole atop One Times Square. This original Ball, constructed of iron and wood and adorned with 100 25-watt light bulbs, was 5 feet in diameter and weighed 700 pounds. In 1920, a 400 pound ball made entirely of iron replaced the original. On October 4, 2007, the co-organizers of New Year’s Eve in Times On Square (Times Square Alliance and Countdown Entertainment) unveiled the new LED Crystal Times Square New Year’s Eve LED Ball at a press conference at Hudson Scenic Studio in Yonkers, New York. 2008 year marks the 100th birthday of the New 2008 Year’s Eve Ball, a universal symbol of celebration and renewal. Center for Compound Semiconductors/Advanced Materials and Devices Group Semiconductors/Advanced Dupuis Times Square New Year’s Ball 1955-2008 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Center for Compound Semiconductors/Advanced Materials and Devices Group Semiconductors/Advanced Dupuis HB LEDs--Future Growth Prospects ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------By 2010, the combined market for high-brightness LEDs By (HB-LEDs) will enter a new phase of its evolution, according to a new report published jointly by industry research firms NanoMarkets and CIR. The combined market for standard HB-LEDs and the The new ultra-high brightness LEDs (UHB-LEDs) will grow from $ 5.0 billion in 2006 to $10.8 billion in 2010, and reach $ 17.4 billion in 2013. 17.4 http://www.tekrati.com/T2/Analyst_Research/ResearchAnnouncementsDetails.asp?Newsid=6081 Center for Compound Semiconductors/Advanced Materials and Devices Group Semiconductors/Advanced Dupuis What Changed? ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- We understood semiconductor We materials and devices better! Center for Compound Semiconductors/Advanced Materials and Devices Group Semiconductors/Advanced Dupuis What’s Next? ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- We’d better understand semiconductor We materials and devices even better! Center for Compound Semiconductors/Advanced Materials and Devices Group Semiconductors/Advanced Dupuis A Few Electronics Milestones ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1874 Braun invents the solid-state rectifier 1906 DeForest invents triode vacuum tube 1907-1927 First radio circuits First developed from diodes & triodes. 1925 Lilienfeld field-effect device patent filed 1947 ENIAC Computer completed 1947 Bardeen and Brattain at Bell Laboratories invent bipolar transistors 1952 Commercial bipolar transistor production at Texas Instruments 1956 Bardeen, Brattain, and Shockley receive Nobel prize in Physics 1958 Integrated circuits developed by Kilby (Ge) and Noyce (Si) 1961 First commercial silicon IC from 1971 Monstanto car LED headlight ad Fairchild Semiconductor 1962 First semiconductor laser diodes 1962 First visible LED—GaAsP red First 1968 Intel founded in Silicon Valley 1968 First commercial op-amp IC 1970 Intel 1103 Si DRAM introduced 1971 Intel 4004 Si microprocessor introduced 1971 First CW injection laser at 300K 1974 Intel 8080 microprocessor introduced Intel 1978 First commercial 1-kilobit memory 1 Megabit memory chip introduced 2007 Intel MOS devices without SiO2 2008 First all-LED headlight car—Audi R8 Center for Compound Semiconductors/Advanced Materials and Devices Group Semiconductors/Advanced Dupuis End ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Center for Compound Semiconductors/Advanced Materials and Devices Group Semiconductors/Advanced Dupuis ...
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This note was uploaded on 01/24/2010 for the course ECE 3040 taught by Professor Hamblen during the Spring '07 term at Georgia Institute of Technology.

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