Memory 3p S08 - EXP 3604 Schemas Ellis & Hunt (1993)...

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Unformatted text preview: EXP 3604 Schemas Ellis & Hunt (1993) “Memory is constructive in that events Memory constructive are elaborated with inferences and presuppositions in order to comprehend.” comprehend.” s “Memory is also reconstructive in that Memory reconstructive inferences are added to what is retrieved about the original event.” retrieved s Schemas s Generalized knowledge structures about objects, situations, and events, acquired from past experience x Abstracted from specific examples s s Helps us make sense of events Help us infer general information x May cause errors in recall (repisodic memory) x Inaccuracy increases over time Schemas s Scripts x Schemas about routine activities sequence of events x Well-structured How schemas influence what we remember s Brewer & Treyans (1981) x Left participants in an office for 35 seconds, and then moved them to a different room x Gave a surprise (incidental) recall test of items in the office Brewer & Treyans (1981) s Results: x Remembered things consistent with "office" schema x Poor memory for objects inconsistent with their schema x People made reconstruction errors: they remembered items that had not been there but were part of the schema s Conclude: x Schemas both help and hurt recall Memory Selection s What effect would an intentional memory test have on Brewer & Treyans’ experiment? Davidson (1994) x Remembered s inconsistent, atypical items x Items violating expectations are more vivid and memorable s The procedure is actually quite simple. First you arrange things into different groups. Of course one pile may be sufficient depending on how much there is to do. If you have to go somewhere else due to lack of facilities, that is the next step; otherwise you are pretty well set. It is important not to overdo things. That is, it is better to do too few things at once than too many. In the short run this may not seem important but complications can easily arise. It is difficult to foresee any end to the necessity for this task in the immediate future, but then one never can tell. After the procedure is completed one arranges the materials into different groups again. They can be put into their appropriate places. Eventually they will be used once more and the whole cycle will then have to be repeated. Bransford & Johnson (1972) s Results: x Passage x Much was difficult to understand without a title, and recall was poor better recall with title Bransford & Johnson (1972) s Conclude: x Title activated appropriate schema, allowing use of prior knowledge to help understand the passage must be activated early on to facilitate recall x Schemas Anderson et al. (1977) s Gave people passages that had multiple interpretations: Rocky slowly got up from the mat, planning his escape. He hesitated a moment and thought. Things were not going well. What bothered him most was being held, especially since the charge against him had been weak. He considered his present situation. He knew, however, that his timing would have to be perfect. Rocky was aware that it was because of his early roughness that he had been penalized so severely—much too severely from his point of view. The situation was becoming frustrating; the pressure had been weighing on him for too long. Rocky was getting angry now. He felt he was ready to make his move. He knew that his success or failure would depend on what he did in the next few months. Anderson et al. (1977) s Results: x Physical education majors were more likely to think the passage was about wrestling majors were more likely to think the passage was about a prisoner x Music s Conclude: x People's own interests can influence which schema guides their interpretations Schemas and inferences s Bartlett (1932) x Presented stories ("War of the Ghosts") and asked people to recall the stories after various delays Bartlett (1932) s Results: x People retained general meaning but not details x More distortions over time x People recalled details not in the story s Conclude: x People may misremember details that are consistent with their schemas, particularly for unfamiliar information Schemas and inferences s Sulin & Dooling (1974) x People read a passage with one of two titles, "Carol Harris" or "Helen Keller" week later, people were given a recognition test for sentences in the passage x One Carol Harris’ Need for Professional Help s Carol Harris was a problem child from birth. She was wild, stubborn, and violent. By the time Carol turned 8, she was still unmanageable. Her parents were very concerned about her mental health. There was no good institution for her problem in her state. Her parents finally decided to take some action. They hired a private teacher for Carol. Sulin & Dooling (1974) s Results: x False recognition of "She was deaf, dumb, and blind": = 50% for people who read Helen Keller = 5% for people who read Carol Harris Sulin & Dooling (1974) s Conclude: x Integrate schema knowledge with info in the passage can distort memory when the schema encourages inferences x Titles Conclusions s Schemas operate in the selection of memories Schemas encourage memory abstraction Schemas influence interpretations in memory Schemas help to form an integrated representation in memory s s s 7 Sins of Memory s s Memory Failures Omission x x x Transience Absentmindedness Blocking Misattribution Suggestibility Persistence Persistence s Commission x x x Eyewitness Memory s Leading questions: Suggest an Suggest appropriate answer appropriate x Loftus & Palmer (1974) 3 Showed traffic safety films depicting car Showed accidents accidents Asked people to estimate speed of cars: • About how fast were the cars going when they About smashed each other? smashed • Used different verbs: collided, bumped, hit, Used 3 Loftus & Palmer (1974) Stronger verbs led to higher estimates of speed Verb Avg. Speed Estimate (mph) "Smashed" 40.8 "Collided" 39.3 "Bumped" 38.1 "Hit" 34.0 "Contacted" 31.8 3 Loftus & Palmer (1974) s A week later, asked questions about the week original film: original Did you see broken glass? Loftus & Palmer (1974) s Results: x Note: no broken glass in the film x 34% of “smashed” participants said “yes” 34% x 14% of “hit” participants said “yes” s Conclude: x Leading questions can alter memory Leading representations representations Misinformation effect s Misleading information after an event Misleading can affect recall can x Loftus, Miller, & Burns (1978) Showed slides of a red car hitting a Showed pedestrian pedestrian 3 There was a yield sign in the slides There yield 3 20 minutes or a week later, asked whether a 20 second car passed the red car "while it was at the stop sign" stop 3 Asked to recognize which slides had been Asked seen (one with a yield sign, one with a stop 3 Loftus et al. (1978) s Results: x 20 minutes: 60% incorrectly recognized the 20 stop sign stop x 1 week: 80% incorrectly recognized the stop week: sign sign x People were quicker to make these false People judgments judgments Loftus et al. (1978) s Conclusions: x We easily accept misleading information x People are confident about their memory People accuracy accuracy x Our memory for events can be reconstructed x Involves retroactive interference Factors influencing misinformation effect s More likely to be misled by false More information if: information x The misinformation is plausible x Misinformation concerns peripheral details Misinformation x Misinformation given after delay Misinformation x People unaware of possibility of People misinformation misinformation When are errors more likely? s Attention has been distracted at the time of the event x e.g., weapon focus s s There is social pressure Witness has been given positive feedback x Inflates confidence s Source amnesia Recovered vs. False Memory s s Recovered-memory perspective False-memory perspective ----------------------------------------------------s Bruck et al. (1995) x Post-event suggestions caused children to have Post-event false memories of a doctor's visit Recovered vs. False Memory s Roediger & McDermott (1995) x Demonstrated false memories experimentally x Studied word lists highly associated with some Studied target word that was not presented target Recovered vs. False Memory Roediger & McDermott (1995) Roediger s Results: x In immediate free recall, 55% "recalled" target In word word x Then given recognition test: Then 3 High levels of false recognition, and these responses High were made with high confidence were x The act of recall increased false recognition of The targets targets Recovered vs. False Memory s The “lost in the mall” study (Loftus & The Pickrell, 1995) Pickrell, x 4 of 5 participants had memories of events that of never occurred s Hyman et al. (1995) x College students created false memories about College family events when told (falsely) that these events actually occurred. Recovered vs. False Memory s Is memory for childhood sexual abuse Is unique? unique? Autobiographical Memory Autobiographical Memory s Characteristics x Memory for naturally occurring events in your Memory own life own Type of episodic memory 3 Vital to identity – shapes self-concept 3 x Can include verbal narrative, imagery, and Can emotional reactions emotional x Emphasizes the accuracy of memory rather Emphasizes accuracy than quantity of items than Autobiographical Memory s s Infantile Amnesia The role of language in memory x x Capture experiences Represent and understand events Collaborative conversations 3 3 3 s Learning to remember x Learn about others Learn about self Learn about the world Autobiographical Memory Themes: s Although we make errors, memory is Although typically accurate s Mistakes are usually not for central, Mistakes important information important s We actively construct a memory at the time We of retrieval – memory is a blend of information information s Flashbulb memory s Vivid memories for events exhibiting a high Vivid level of surprise and emotional arousal Almost every generation can name such an Almost event s Flashbulb memory Contain 6 kinds of information s The place s Event engaged in s Deliverer of news s Feelings s Emotions in others s Aftermath Aftermath s Flashbulb memories s Determinants of flashbulb memories x Surprise x Emotional arousal x Importance of event x Personal relevance Flashbulb memories s Conclusions: x Flashbulb memories can be inaccurate and Flashbulb susceptible to forgetting susceptible 3 Perhaps flashbulb memories are more vivid because of Perhaps rehearsal/ personal relevance? rehearsal/ • Neisser et al. (1996): Memory for CA earthquake Neisser 143) 143) (p. x People are overconfident about their accuracy Flashbulb memories s Can be explained by standard mechanisms Can of memory of Autobiographical Memory s Consistency Bias – exaggerate the Consistency consistency between our past and present feelings and beliefs feelings Tell life stories as consistent with current Tell self schemas self s ...
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This note was uploaded on 01/24/2010 for the course PSYCHOLOGY PCO 4930 taught by Professor Perrin during the Fall '09 term at Florida State College.

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