Memory EXP3604 - EXP 3604 Long-Term Memory Context and...

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Unformatted text preview: EXP 3604 Long-Term Memory: Context and Expertise Context Effects Encoding Specificity (Thomson & Tulving, 1970) Memory is influenced by context at encoding: Better memory if encoding context matches retrieval context levels of processing implicit/explicit memory Encoding Specificity Effect of context on word recognition Effect of context on word recall Godden & Baddeley (1975) Godden & Baddeley (1975) Divers learned unrelated words, on land or underwater Tested their recall either on land or underwater Godden & Baddeley (1975) Results: Better recall when contexts matched 50 Words learned on land Words learned underwater Percent correct 40 30 20 10 0 Recalled on land Recalled underwater Place of Recall How Emotions and Mood Influence Memory Pollyanna Principle Recall is better for pleasant than unpleasant material TV violence and memory for commercials TV violence increases anger, and anger reduces memory accuracy How Emotions and Mood Influence Memory Mood congruence Recall is better if material being learned "matches" the learner's present mood These effects are very consistent Mood-state dependence Recall is better when mood at retrieval "matches" mood during encoding Example of encoding specificity Other Types of Context Better recall of information learned and tested in the same state Physical: study for an exam in the room where exam is taken Physiological: effects of alcohol and marijuana Inconsistencies with Context Effects Context effects are not consistent - WHY? Difference between real-life memories and those in the laboratory Outshining hypothesis Better cues than context can trigger memory Physical vs. mental context Explicit and Implicit Memory Explicit Memory conscious effort to remember; aware that you are accessing memory Implicit Memory utilize memory in the service of some other activity Procedure 1. Pleasantness rating task e.g., pillow ... diamond ... telephone ... watermelon ... casino 2. Filler tasks 3. Word-stem completion vs. Cued recall wat_______ lin________ dia_______ Explicit memory tests aka direct tests Require conscious recollection of previous experiences Participants are instructed to try to remember Types of tests / Measure = % correct Recognition Cued Recall Free Recall Implicit memory tests aka indirect tests Do not require conscious recollection of previous experiences Participants are given a seemingly "unrelated" test Type of tests / Measure = repetition priming Word Completion Perceptual Identification Homophone Spelling YOU vs. EWE Relation to Tulving's model Episodic Memory & Semantic Memory = Explicit Memory Procedural Memory = Implicit Memory Dissociations Amnesia (Graf, Mandler, & Squire, 1984) Compared to normals, amnesics had poorer cued recall, but similar repetition priming in stem completion Percentage recalled 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Amnesics Normals Type of Participant Stem completion Cued recall Dissociations within normal people Age-related dissociations children older adults Drug-related dissociations Dissociations Time delay between study and test (Tulving et al., 1982) Explicit recognition decreases after a week, whereas priming in implicit fragment-completion did not 60 Percent Correct 50 40 30 20 10 0 1 Hour 7 Days Recognition Fragment Completion Retention Interval Theoretical explanations Multiple memory systems Explicit and implicit memory are mediated by two separate memory systems in the brain. Implies that we know more than we can "recall" Support Patterns of blood flow in brain Problems Dissociations BETWEEN implicit tests Similar effects on explicit and implicit Theoretical explanations Transfer appropriate processing Implicit and explicit memory tests require different types of processing: Implicit tests use bottom-up processing, whereas explicit tests use top-down processing Support Can explain depth of processing dissociation Weldon & Roediger (1987) Weldon & Roediger (1987) People looked at pictures or words this is the exposure phase Later, memory was tested explicitly (free recall) or implicitly (word fragment completion) Weldon & Roediger (1987) Results: Pictures > words for recall Picture superiority effect Words > pictures for fragment completion Weldon & Roediger (1987) Conclude: Implicit and explicit tests utilize different processing Supports encoding specificity principle Memory will be better if the conditions at encoding match the conditions at retrieval Break Memory Strategies Procedures you perform that are designed to improve your encoding and/or retrieval of information Try This! Memorize these rhyming words: One is a bun Six is sticks Seven is heaven Two is a shoe Eight is a gate Three is a tree Nine is a wine Four is a door Ten is a hen Five is a hive Try This! Form a vivid mental image between these pairs of words: bun-hammer shoe-snake tree-macaroni door-busybody hive-tractor sticks-alligator heaven-lemon gate-radio wine-table hen-portrait William James (1890) "The `secret of a good memory' is thus the secret of forming diverse and multiple associations with every fact we care to retain." -encoding -retention -retrieval Factors that Improve Encoding Increased study time and increased number of learning episodes Ebbinghaus Spacing of learning episodes Variable encoding Mnemonics Imagery, organization Increased Study Time The more you practice, the more you remember But... Practiced material, not general memory Quality of practice Level of processing Divided attention Spaced Study Spaced practice leads to better memory Spaced group: P1---------- P2 ---------- Test Massed group: P1P2 ---------- Test What role does difficulty of material play? Spaced Study presentations? What if there are multiple study Increase time delay between successive study presentations to maximize performance P1 ----- P2 ---------- P3 -------------- P4 What happens with immediate tests? Spaced group: P1 ---------- P2 Test Massed group: P1P2 Test Possible Explanations People are rehearsing in the delay between P1 and P2 NO: Bjork Attention-decrement hypothesis We process less efficiently and less elaborately when P1 and P2 are close in time We misjudge how well we know the material Possible Explanations Variable encoding We form multiple memory traces with a delay between P1 and P2 Multiple memory traces lead to better memory Gartman & Johnson Presented lists of words where target words appeared in either one or two contexts Gartman and Johnson Gartman & Johnson O ne C onte xt ARM LE G FOOT ... C H IN KNEE FOOT T w o C onte xts IN C H METER FOO T ... C H IN KNEE FOO T Results: Better recall of words given in two contexts Variable Encoding Ways to achieve variable encoding: Reorganize the material to encode info in multiple ways Come up with new examples Modify place of study Smith: context-dependent memory Mnemonics An active strategy or device to help memory Formal Pre-established set of memory aids Considerable practice of to-be-remembered In relation to established set Less elaborate More suited to small amounts of info Informal Mnemonics Why do mnemonics work? Material practiced repeatedly Integrated into an existing memory frame Structure for acquiring info Forms durable and distinctive record Provides excellent means of retrieval Mnemonics Imagery mnemonics Keyword method Use a keyword similar in sound to info to be learned Create an image that links keyword to the new info JIM BUMMEL Think Back! Try to recall the unrelated words I showed at beginning IN ORDER, using the rhyming words as cues How many did you get? Peg Method Link the numbers 1-10 to a list of "peg words" that rhyme: One is a bun Six is sticks Seven is heaven Two is a shoe Eight is a gate Three is a tree Nine is a wine Four is a door Ten is a hen Five is a hive Peg Method Use imagery to link new words to the peg words: bun-hammer shoe-snake tree-macaroni door-busybody hive-tractor sticks-alligator heaven-lemon gate-radio wine-table hen-portrait Mnemonics Keyword method Used in learning vocabulary or names Not permanent without repetition and rehearsal Imagery Mnemonics Method of Loci Associate items to be learned with ordered locations 2 keys: Memorized physical locations Mental images of to-be-remembered information Organization Mnemonics Chunking Hierarchy First letter technique Narrative technique Implications Create meaningful images and links Use vivid visualization Consider learning style: visual, auditory, kinesthetic Factors that Improve Retrieval Reinstate encoding environment (encoding specificity) Distinctive cues Retrieval practice Distinctive Cues Mantyla (1986) Visually presented lists of 600 words Participants were asked to write down one or three associations for each word e.g., table -? Gave a surprise recall test e.g., ? - chair, dinner, cloth Mantyla (1986) Results: When generating 3 associates, people remembered 90.5% of the words (= 543) When generating 1 associate, people remembered 61.6% of the words (= 370) In a typical free recall, people would recall approximately 40 out of 600 words Why? Distinctive Cues How else can you make items distinctive? Embed them in vivid images Generate unique verbal labels Encode them in terms of a motor act, even if imagined Retrieval Practice Test yourself between learning sessions Group 1 studies material 5 times, gets a test at end S S S S S | T Group 2 studies once, gets a test, then alternately studies and tests S T S T S | T Retrieval Practice Results: Group 2 recalls more than Group 1, even with less study time Involves generation effect and metamemory Metamemory Your knowledge, awareness, and control of your memory Part of metacognition Accuracy? -depends Metamemory 2 aspects: Can accurately predict which items will remember and which will forget Overestimate total score/remembering Conceptual material more difficult to predict accurately Delayed judgment helps Metamemory Effect of task difficulty? When have time, allocate study to difficult items Challenging task with limited time, adjust study to focus on items likely to master Tip-of-the-tongue Subjective feeling when confident know material but unable to recall Can usually recall portions or aspects Metamemory because you know you know and can't remember Metacomprehension Improves reading comprehension/skill Errors: Fail to detect passage discrepancies Overestimate recall performance Improve: Levels of processing Encoding specificity What Kinds of Activities Can You Do? Paraphrase material Use self-reference, generation Encode using a story Reorganize material Generate new examples Change your study environment ...
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This note was uploaded on 01/24/2010 for the course PSYCHOLOGY PCO 4930 taught by Professor Perrin during the Fall '09 term at Florida State College.

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