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Memory overview - LTMp - EXP 3604 Memory Overview Long-Term...

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Unformatted text preview: EXP 3604 Memory Overview Long-Term Memory Why Study Memory? ● The Man who Mistook His Wife For a Hat (Oliver Sacks) ■ “ He is isolated in a single moment of being, with a moat or lacuna of forgetting all around him…. He is a man without a past (or future), stuck in a constantly changing, meaningless moment… a man without roots, or rooted only in the remote past (1985, p. 29). Atkinson-Shiffrin Model • Iconic Memory (visual) • Echoic Memory (auditory) Sensory Memory ● Purpose ■ Passively registers input & briefly retains stimulus trace after stimulus vanishes ● Functions ■ Helps us retain info that doesn’t last long ■ Aids perception by allowing you to continue processing after the stimulus is gone ■ Keeps accurate record of stimulation so most important can be processed further ● Duration ■ Very brief – .5 sec for iconic memory, 2-4 sec for echoic memory ● Capacity ■ Large, and fairly accurate ● How encoded ■ Raw, unprocessed form ● Not under conscious control ■ Passively registered Sensory Memory Characteristics Sensory Memory Short-term Memory Long-term Memory • Iconic / Echoic • STM • LTM • Brief duration (.5 sec / 4 sec) • Relatively short duration (30 sec) • Semi-permanent (minutes to years) • Relatively large capacity • Limited capacity • HUGE capacity • Info encoded in raw, sensory form • Info encoded acoustically • Info encoded semantically • Passive transfer to STM • Active transfer to LTM • N/A • Rapid forgetting • Relatively rapid forgetting • May or may not be forgotten Atkinson-Shiffrin Model Support for A & S model ● Two serial position effects ■ Primacy Effect ⇒ Better recall for words at beginning of list ⇒ Recalled from LTM ■ Recency Effect ⇒ Better recall for words at end of list ⇒ Recalled from STM Serial Position Curve Support for A & S model ● Effect on serial position curve ■ Speeding up presentation rate? ⇒ Eliminate primacy effect ■ Delaying the start of recall with an interfering task? ⇒ Eliminate recency effect Serial Position Curve Neurological Evidence Support for A & S model ● H.M: brain lesion patient ■ Neurosurgery to treat severe epileptic seizures in 1953 (age 27) H.M.’s Surgery ● Bilateral removal of large portions of temporal lobes: Most of hippocampus, surrounding cortex, and amygdala H.M. -- Quotes “ Right now I'm wondering, Have I done or said...
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Memory overview - LTMp - EXP 3604 Memory Overview Long-Term...

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