Problem Solving S08p

# Problem Solving S08p - EXP 3604 Problem Solving Problem...

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EXP 3604 Problem Solving

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Problem Solving Definition Constructing a sequence of actions to achieve a goal Path toward goal is not immediately obvious
Questions to address What makes a problem a problem? How do we go about the process of solving problems? Are some processes better and more efficient? What sorts of cognitive processes facilitate or impede problem solving?

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Problem components Initial state Goal state Problem specification (initial + goal) Objects Operators Obstacles or constraints
Well-defined problems Definite initial state, goal state One or more paths to obtaining the goal Set of rules defining legal moves Used to study problem-solving e.g., non-insight problems Basic Types of Problems

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I ll-defined problems Goals less obvious or absent Starting point unclear Sub-goals not well defined e.g., insight problems Basic Types of Problems
Basic Types of Problems Routine Problem Solvable through applying well-practiced procedures Nonroutine Problems New problem or paradigm; poses a challenge Many Ill-defined problems become well- defined as they become more routine Able to give the problem definition

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5 problem categories Transformation problems Arrangement problems Induction problems Deduction problems Divergent problems
Problem Solving Process of converting presented information into some type of internal mental representation Correctly specifying the problem space Initial state Operators This aspect critical to eventual solution

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Methods of Solving Problems Algorithms Always produce a solution e.g., 3 X 9 = 27 Search entire problem space (exhaustive) e.g., anagram solving Is effective when problem space is small GPI (= 6 possible combinations) Can be inefficient and time consuming RAHDLE (= 720 possible
Methods of Solving Problems Heuristics Rules of thumb that do not guarantee a solution Reduce the problem space

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Why is 1 st anagram easier? We use
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Problem Solving S08p - EXP 3604 Problem Solving Problem...

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