Problem Solving S08p - EXP 3604 Problem Solving Problem...

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EXP 3604 Problem Solving
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Problem Solving Definition Constructing a sequence of actions to achieve a goal Path toward goal is not immediately obvious
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Questions to address What makes a problem a problem? How do we go about the process of solving problems? Are some processes better and more efficient? What sorts of cognitive processes facilitate or impede problem solving?
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Problem components Initial state Goal state Problem specification (initial + goal) Objects Operators Obstacles or constraints
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Well-defined problems Definite initial state, goal state One or more paths to obtaining the goal Set of rules defining legal moves Used to study problem-solving e.g., non-insight problems Basic Types of Problems
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I ll-defined problems Goals less obvious or absent Starting point unclear Sub-goals not well defined e.g., insight problems Basic Types of Problems
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Basic Types of Problems Routine Problem Solvable through applying well-practiced procedures Nonroutine Problems New problem or paradigm; poses a challenge Many Ill-defined problems become well- defined as they become more routine Able to give the problem definition
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5 problem categories Transformation problems Arrangement problems Induction problems Deduction problems Divergent problems
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Problem Solving Process of converting presented information into some type of internal mental representation Correctly specifying the problem space Initial state Operators This aspect critical to eventual solution
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Methods of Solving Problems Algorithms Always produce a solution e.g., 3 X 9 = 27 Search entire problem space (exhaustive) e.g., anagram solving Is effective when problem space is small GPI (= 6 possible combinations) Can be inefficient and time consuming RAHDLE (= 720 possible
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Methods of Solving Problems Heuristics Rules of thumb that do not guarantee a solution Reduce the problem space
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Why is 1 st anagram easier? We use
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Problem Solving S08p - EXP 3604 Problem Solving Problem...

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