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Semantic Memory S08 p - EXP 3604 Semantic Memory Semantic...

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EXP 3604 Semantic Memory
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Semantic Memory The database of general knowledge that enables our successful interaction with the world around us How is knowledge organized? How is knowledge represented? How is knowledge retrieved?
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Concepts and Categories Used to organize semantic memory Categories Class of objects that belong together Concepts Our mental representation of a category
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Sentence Verification Basic premise: Time required to retrieve one piece of information relative to another suggests how information is organized Procedure: Shown sentences involving concepts and categories "An apple is a fruit" "A television is a mammal" Answer TRUE or FALSE Record response time (latency)
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Four general effects with sentence verifications Typicality effect Decisions about typical members are faster than atypical members. Category-Size effect Decisions are faster when the concept is a member of small category compared to a large category.
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Four general effects with sentence verifications Semantic Priming effect Decisions are faster when preceded by a semantically-related concept. True-False effect True decisions are faster than false ones.
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Explanations for these effects HOW do we decide which concepts are similar or different? Feature Comparison Model (Hierarchical) Network Models Spreading Activation Models Model/PDP Models ACT Model
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Feature Comparison Model (Smith, Shoben, & Rips, 1974) Concepts are stored as a set of attributes or features: Two kinds of features: Defining features = necessary Characteristic features = descriptive
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Feature Comparison Model To verify sentences, there are two stages: (1) First comparison : Compare all features If high overlap, quickly answer TRUE If low overlap, quickly answer FALSE If intermediate overlap, go to stage 2 = faster RT
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Feature Comparison Model To verify sentences, there are two stages: (2) Second comparison : Compare defining features If they match, answer TRUE; else answer FALSE Takes longer = slower RT
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FC Model - Problems What distinguishes defining & characteristic features?
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