Biol. 1311 – 9/1/06 – Know your macromolecules What biology needs to be attentive to about chemistry (for now): Covalent bonds – keeping in mind that these are made and broken by enzymes, not unmediated chemical reactions; Ions, but not ionic bonds Fundamental definition of a covalent bond (Fig. 2-7) Differences in electron sharing make life possible (Fig. 2-10) Hydrogen bonds are ubiquitous in aqueous conditions (Fig 2-26 eq) Implications of H-bonding and aqueous chemistry All molecules interact; When they interact they change each other Macromolecules in solution have polar and charged groups Water, small molecules and macromolecules all interact with each other Macromolecules (proteins) and water (no eq. fig) Water is a different molecule at different pHs (no eq. fig) Salt crystals aren’t alive but the ions are always with us (Fig 2-9)
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