DRUG CARDS.pdf - ACTIVE LEARNING TEMPLATE Medication...

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Unformatted text preview: ACTIVE LEARNING TEMPLATE: Medication STUDENT NAME______________________________________ Amoxicillin MEDICATION___________________________________________________________________________ REVIEW MODULE CHAPTER____________ CATEGORY CLASS__Antibiotics _____________________________________________________________________ PURPOSE OF MEDICATION Expected Pharmacological Action Inhibits bacterial cell wall synthesis and death of gram-positive bacteria Therapeutic Use Used treat infections caused by susceptible organisms in the ears, nose, throat, genitourinary tract, skin, and skin structures. Complications angioedema(swelling of lips and face), CNS depression (seizures), lethargy, anxiety, depression, seizures Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, taste alterations, oral candidiasis Anemia, bone marrow depression, granulocytopenia Hyperkalemia, hypernatremia, alkalosis Pruritus, hives, rash Medication Administration Only available for oral use, and can be given with or without food. Dosages are higher than in the past due to Streptococcus pneumoniae resistant bacteria Contraindications/Precautions Doses must be altered for clients with renal dysfunction. Pregnancy category B. Consult with physicin when using with expecting mothers and older adults. Interactions Nursing Interventions Assess for allergy to penicillins. Monitor renal and liver function. Monitor for hypersensitivity reaction. Measure Input and output if diarrhea occurs. Can have effects with birth control, warfarin (blood thinner), methotrexate, Rifampin, NSAIDS, and has a cross allergy with cephalosporins. Client Education Evaluation of Medication Effectiveness Advise client to report any advese effects to the medication immediately. A decrease in the presence of bacteria and infection. A decrease in the symptoms from infection. Fewer white blood cells. ACTIVE LEARNING TEMPLATES Therapeutic Procedure  A7 ACTIVE LEARNING TEMPLATE: Medication STUDENT NAME______________________________________ Azithromycin MEDICATION___________________________________________________________________________ REVIEW MODULE CHAPTER____________ antiinfective CATEGORY CLASS__Macrolides_____________________________________________________________________ PURPOSE OF MEDICATION Expected Pharmacological Action Inhibits protein synthesis, bacteriostatic in small doses, bactericidal in large doses Therapeutic Use Used to treat C. Diff, upper and lower respiratory tract infections, skin/ soft tissue infections, syphilis, Lyme disease, gonorrhea/Chlamydia, Mycoplasma, and Corynebacterium infections Complications nausea/ vomiting, -GI bleed, abdominal pain, hepatotoxicity, jaundice, anorexia, cardiac issues, ototoxicity, C-Diff: with overuse of antibiotic Medication Administration Available in both oral and injection forms. It is usually given in a regimen of 500 mg on day 1 and then 250 mg/ day for 4 days. Contraindications/Precautions Used with caution in clients with heart problems such as heart disease or dysrhythmias. Used as an alternative drug for patients with allergies to beta-lactam antibiotics. Interactions Can cause decreased effects when used with Warfarin, Carbamazopine, cyclosporine, Theophyline, Digoxin, and HMG CoA reductase inhibitors Nursing Interventions Monitor the liver and kidneys for toxicity. Monitor hearing for ototoxicity. Patient teaching is important to avoid serious adverse effects. Monitor vitals. Instruct client to take exact dose completely even if symptoms subside Client Education Evaluation of Medication Effectiveness A decrease in the presence of bacteria and infection. A decrease in the symptoms from infection. Fewer white blood cells. ACTIVE LEARNING TEMPLATES Take with water, not juice. Juice can speed up reaction. Take after a meal or snack. Report and change in hearing to provider. Also report any other adverse effects. Take full dose even if you feel better. Therapeutic Procedure  A7 ACTIVE LEARNING TEMPLATE: Medication STUDENT NAME______________________________________ Ampicillin MEDICATION___________________________________________________________________________ REVIEW MODULE CHAPTER____________ CATEGORY CLASS__Antibiotic _____________________________________________________________________ PURPOSE OF MEDICATION Expected Pharmacological Action Binds to bacterial cell wall resulting in cell death, Broad spectrum kills gram-positive and gramnegative bacteria Therapeutic Use Skin and skin structure infections, soft-tissue infections, Otitis media, intra-abdominal infections, sinusitis, respiratory infections, and septicemia Bactericidal action Complications Seizures, hepatotoxicity, C. Diff, diarrhea, cholestasis, nausea, vomiting, erythema, stevens-johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis, rash, urticaria Medication Administration Ampicillin anhydrous and trihydrate are both administered orally, whereas ampicillin sodium is given parenterally. Contraindications/Precautions Do not use if allergic to penicillin, history of cholestatic jaundice, or hepatic jaundice, severe renal insufficiency Interactions Contraceptives, warfarin, allopurinol, probenecid. Decreases the effects of each of these medications Nursing Interventions Inform client of potential adverse effects, monitor vital signs, monitor hepatic function, obtain specimens for culture and sensitivity, Monitor client for signs and symptoms of anaphylactic shock. Monitor bowel function, BUN creatinine, and signs of jaundice. Client Education Evaluation of Medication Effectiveness A decrease in white blood cells, decrease in symptoms of infection. Decrease in fever and malaise. Normal vital signs decreased fatigue and discomfort. ACTIVE LEARNING TEMPLATES Take the entire dose even after symptoms improve. Notify healthcare provider if symptoms do not improve or worsen. If taking PO, take with foods to improve GI symptoms. Avoid or eliminate alcohol, do not take with over the counter drugs before asking HCP. Therapeutic Procedure  A7 ACTIVE LEARNING TEMPLATE: Medication STUDENT NAME______________________________________ Cephalexin MEDICATION___________________________________________________________________________ REVIEW MODULE CHAPTER____________ CATEGORY CLASS__Caphalosporin _____________________________________________________________________ PURPOSE OF MEDICATION Expected Pharmacological Action Bactericidal antibiotics that work by interfering with bacterial cell wall synthesis and killing grampositive bacteria Therapeutic Use Used for bacterial infections of the respiratory system, soft skin and skin structure infections and other infections. Complications The most commonly reported adverse effects are mild diarrhea, abdominal cramps, rash, pruritus, redness, and edema. Because cephalosporins are chemically very similar to penicillins, a person who has had an allergic reaction to penicillin may also have an allergic reaction to a cephalosporin Medication Administration Available only in oral form- take entire prescribed dose at same time of day each day for correct amount of time. Contraindications/Precautions Do not take if you gave an allergy to penicillin, pregnancy category B drug. Same contraindications as penicillin. Interactions Do not take with alcohol, antacids, iron, probenecid, and oral contraceptives. It can cause serious adverse effects or drug to drug reactions. Consult with your healthcare provider before using any other over the counter medications Nursing Interventions Patient teaching, teach the importance of taking the entire prescribed dose even if you start to feel better. Do not take if serious adverse effects occur. Teach client to take with water and food if GI effects occur. Client Education Evaluation of Medication Effectiveness Consult with your healthcare provider before using any other over the counter medications A decrease in fever malaise, and infection. A decrease in white blood cells, cough, dyspnea, purulent sputum. Normal vital signs decreased fatigue and discomfort. ACTIVE LEARNING TEMPLATES Therapeutic Procedure  A7 ACTIVE LEARNING TEMPLATE: Medication STUDENT NAME______________________________________ Erythromycin MEDICATION___________________________________________________________________________ REVIEW MODULE CHAPTER____________ CATEGORY CLASS__Antibiotic _____________________________________________________________________ PURPOSE OF MEDICATION Expected Pharmacological Action bacteriostatic drugs that inhibit protein synthesis by binding reversibly to the 50S ribosomal subunits of susceptible microorganisms. Therapeutic Use Macrolides are effective in the treatment of a wide range of infections. Infections of the upper and lower respiratory tract, skin, and soft tissue caused by some strains of Streptococcus and Haemophilus Complications It causes many GI-related adverse effects, especially nausea and vomiting. It can be very hard on the stomach, take with food. Palpitations, chest pain, QT prolongation Headache, dizziness, vertigo Nausea, hepatotoxicity, heartburn, vomiting, diarrhea, flatulence, cholestatic jaundice, anorexia, abnormal taste Rash, urticaria, phlebitis at intravenous site Hearing loss, tinnitus Medication Administration Available in topical forms for dermatologic use and in ophthalmic dosage forms. The absorption of oral erythromycin is enhanced if it is taken on an empty stomachAn injectable form is also available for IV use. Contraindications/Precautions Only known contraindication is a drug allergy. Nursing Interventions Interactions There are a number of potential drug interactions with the macrolides. The macrolides possess two properties that can cause drug interactions: they are highly protein-bound, and they are metabolized in the liver Patient teaching, teach the importance of taking the entire prescribed dose even if you start to feel better. Do not take if serious adverse effects occur. Teach client to take with water and food if GI effects occur. Monitor vitals and serious adverse effects Client Education Evaluation of Medication Effectiveness A decrease in fever malaise, and infection. A decrease in white blood cells, cough, dyspnea, purulent sputum. Normal vital signs decreased fatigue and discomfort. ACTIVE LEARNING TEMPLATES Instruct client to take with food if the medication causes GI upset. Take the entire dose even if you feel better to avoid bacterial resistance. Therapeutic Procedure  A7 ACTIVE LEARNING TEMPLATE: Medication STUDENT NAME______________________________________ Albuterol MEDICATION___________________________________________________________________________ REVIEW MODULE CHAPTER____________ CATEGORY CLASS__Bronchiodilator _____________________________________________________________________ PURPOSE OF MEDICATION Expected Pharmacological Action Binds to B2 receptors in the respiratory system by relaxing smooth muscles in the airway Therapeutic Use Used for acute asthma attacks, Bronchial asthma, bronchitis, and other pulmonary diseases. Used as a "rescue drug" in status asthmaticus, (asthma exacerbation). Bronchodilator Complications Tremor, UTI, insomnia, hypokalemia, bronchospasm, conjunctivitis, nasal congestion, nervousness, restlessness, increased anxiety, increased heart rate, and stimulates SNS. Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, hypokalemia, hyperglycemia, Medication Administration PO- 2 Mg tablet -extended-release tablet -Syrup - Inhalation- aerosol powder Contraindications/Precautions Contraindicated in hypersensitivity to adrenergicamines Nursing Interventions Interactions Observe for wheezing, shortness or breath, pulse oximetry, and other vital signs. Auscultate lung fields, and check BP before administration. Teach client the proper use of an inhaler. With adrenergic agents, can cause increased SNS effects. Beta-blockers and digoxin may decrease the therapeutic effect. Potassium losing diuretics can cause hypokalemia, tricyclic antidepressants can cause cardiac problems Client Education Evaluation of Medication Effectiveness Bronchial are dilated improving the passage of oxygen. Decreased shortness of breath, wheezing, and dyspnea. Increased pulse oximetry and client experience a decrease in symptoms of an asthma attack. ACTIVE LEARNING TEMPLATES Advise client that this medication will increase effects of the SNS. Do not double doses, use at the first sign of an asthma attack. Use proper inhaler administration. Contact the HCP if shortness of breath is not resolved. Therapeutic Procedure  A7 ACTIVE LEARNING TEMPLATE: Medication STUDENT NAME______________________________________ Diphenhydramine MEDICATION___________________________________________________________________________ REVIEW MODULE CHAPTER____________ CATEGORY CLASS__Antihistamines _____________________________________________________________________ PURPOSE OF MEDICATION Expected Pharmacological Action Antagonizes the effects of histamine at H1 receptor sites. It does not bind to or inactive histamine. Significant CNS depressant and anticholinergic properties. Therapeutic Use Decreased symptoms of histamine excess (sneezing, rhinorrhea, nasal and ocular pruritus, ocular tearing and redness, urticaria). Relief of acute dystonic reactions. Prevention of motion sickness. Suppression of cough. Treatment of Parkinson’s disease. Complications Drowsiness, dizziness, blurred vision, hypotension, anorexia, dry mouth, constipation, photosensitivity Medication Administration Available in oral, parenteral, and topical preparations. Contraindications/Precautions Contraindications in: Hypersensitivity; Acute attacks of asthma; Lactation; Known alcohol intolerance. Precautions: Nursing mothers, neonates, and patients with lower respiratory tract symptoms, seizure disorders, angle closure glaucoma Interactions Increase risk of CNS depression with another antihistamine, alcohol, opioid analgesics, and sedative/hypnotics. Increased anticholinergic effects with tricyclic antidepressants, quinidine, or disopyramide. Nursing Interventions -This drug has multiple uses so determine why the medication was ordered and assess symptoms that apply to the individual -Assess for nasal stuffiness -Assess for movement disorder before and after administration for Parkinson's -Assess N/V and bowel sounds for treatment of motion sickness Client Education Evaluation of Medication Effectiveness -Prevent of, or decreased urticaria in, anaphylaxis or other allergic responses -Decreased dyskinesia in Parkinson's -Prevention of or decrease in N/V caused by motion sickness -Decrease in frequency and cough w/out eliminating cough reflex ACTIVE LEARNING TEMPLATES -Take medication as directed -May cause drowsiness, avoid driving or other activities that require alertness -May cause dry mouth, perform good oral hygiene and sugarless gum or candy may minimize this effect -Use sunscreen and protective clothing Therapeutic Procedure  A7 ACTIVE LEARNING TEMPLATE: Medication STUDENT NAME______________________________________ Guaifenesin MEDICATION___________________________________________________________________________ REVIEW MODULE CHAPTER____________ CATEGORY CLASS__Expectorant _____________________________________________________________________ PURPOSE OF MEDICATION Expected Pharmacological Action Reduces viscosity of tenacious secretions by increasing respiratory tract fluid Therapeutic Use Mobilization and subsequent expectoration of mucous Complications CNS: Dizziness, headache GI: N/V/D, stomach pain Derm: rash, urticaria Medication Administration PO (adults) - 200-400 mg Q4H or 600-1200 mg Q12H as extended release product Contraindications/Precautions -Hypersensitivity -Some products may contain alcohol so avoid in patients with alcohol intolerance -Some products may contain aspartame and should be avoided in patients with phenylketonuria Interactions Nursing Interventions -ER tablets should be swallowed whole not crushed/broken -Do not confuse this drug with guanfacine -Administer each dose followed by full glass of water No significant drug interactions Client Education Evaluation of Medication Effectiveness Easier mobilization and expectoration of mucous from cough associated with upper respiratory infection ACTIVE LEARNING TEMPLATES -Instruct patient to cough effectively -Caution parents to avoid OTC cough and cold products while breast feeding or administering to children < 4 yrs. -May occasionally cause dizziness, avoid driving or other activities that require alertness Therapeutic Procedure  A7 ACTIVE LEARNING TEMPLATE: Medication STUDENT NAME______________________________________ Fluticasone MEDICATION___________________________________________________________________________ REVIEW MODULE CHAPTER____________ CATEGORY CLASS__Corticosteroids _____________________________________________________________________ PURPOSE OF MEDICATION Expected Pharmacological Action Anti-inflammatory and vasoconstrictor that may decrease inflammation by inhibiting mast cells, macrophages, and mediators Therapeutic Use Maintenance of chronic asthma in patients Relieve nasal symptoms of seasonal and perennial allergic and nonallergic rhinitis Complications Headache, dizziness, restlessness, dysphonia, hoarseness, nasal congestion, bronchospasm, dry mouth, diarrhea, oral candidiasis, adrenal suppresion Medication Administration Inhalation: prime and shake well before use Intranasal Contraindications/Precautions -CI in patients that are hypersensitive to ingredients in these preparations -CI for acute attack of asthma/status asthmaticus -Use cautiously in breast feeding women Interactions Strong CYP3A4 inhibitors = may increase mean fluticasone level Ritonavir - may cause cushing syndrome Nursing Interventions -Monitor respiratory status and lung sounds and assess PFT periodically -Assess patients changing from systemic corticosteroids to inhalation corticosteroids for signs of adrenal insufficiency (anorexia, nausea, weakness, fatigue, hypotension, hypoglycemia. If these signs appear, notify HCP -Monitor withdrawal symptoms -Monitor signs of hypersensitivity Client Education Evaluation of Medication Effectiveness Management of the symptoms of chronic asthma Improvement in symptoms of asthma ACTIVE LEARNING TEMPLATES -Make sure the patient knows the proper way to use the inhaler, if not instruct and teach them -Advise patient to stop using medication and notify HCP immediately if S/S of hypersensitivity reactions occur -Should not be used to treat asthma attacks Therapeutic Procedure  A7 ACTIVE LEARNING TEMPLATE: Medication STUDENT NAME______________________________________ Montelukast MEDICATION___________________________________________________________________________ REVIEW MODULE CHAPTER____________ Leukotriene Antagonists CATEGORY CLASS_______________________________________________________________________ PURPOSE OF MEDICATION Expected Pharmacological Action Antagonizes the effects of leukotrienes, which mediate the following: Airway edema, smooth muscle constriction, altered cellular activity. Decreases the inflammatory process Therapeutic Use Decreased frequency and severity of acute asthma attacks. Decreased severity of allergic rhinitis.Decreased attacks of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction. Complications CNS: suicidal behaviors/thoughts, agitation, anxiety, depression EENT: nosebleed Resp: cough, rhinorrhea GI: abdominal pain, increase liver enzymes Derm: Steven-Johnson Syndrome, Toxic epidermal necrolysis Medication Administration Asthma and Allergic Rhinitis: PO (adults and children ≥14 yrs.) 10 mg once daily Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction PO (adults and children ≥ 6 yrs.) 10 mg at least 2 hours before exercise Contraindications/Precautions Hypersensitivity Use cautiously in acute attacks of asthma Interactions Drugs which induce the CYP450 enzyme system (phenobarbital and rifampin) may decrease the effects of montelukast Nursing Interventions Assess lung sounds and respiratory function Assess allergy symptoms Monitor closely for changes in behavior that could possibly ind...
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