Psychology Study Guide Exam 1

Psychology Study Guide Exam 1 - Psychology Study Guide Exam...

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Unformatted text preview: Psychology Study Guide Exam 1 Textbook Clarifications Assumptions of Science (pg. 6): Nature is lawful In Psychology, it is impossible to say with great certainty how a person will behave (not as much precision) Psychology has a limited number of laws, that is why we need statistics Behavior is determined (not dependent on choice or free will) Most behavior is not self determined When we are forced to use self-control, it is very depleting (Perception of Free Will study) Attitudes of Scientists (pg 8) Uncertain: no one already knows how a behavior operates Open-minded: any approach or statement may be correct Skeptical: any approach or statement may contain error Cautious: any conclusion is not a fact Ethical: research should not harm others If you displayed all of these attitudes you wouldnt be able to be a good psychologist There are limitations: if you are too ethic to put participants into a manipulation Rules for designing Research Empirical: information is based on observation Objective: observations are free from bias Systematic: observations are made in a step-by-step fashion Controlled: potentially confusing factors are eliminated Avoid Pseudo-explanations Circular explanations, giving the reason for an event another name for that event Limitations of the scientific method 1) human beings conduct science 2) science works better for some topics than others 3) science is slow 4) science is expensive Cant test hypotheses that are not testable- ethical limitations- not observable falsifiable - need to be able to show that hypothesis is incorrect Basic Research vs. Applied Research: Basic Research: just for the attainment of knowledge Applied Research: towards a common goal (more prestigious because you are trying to solve a problem) Goals of Science : Describe: learn what a behavior entails and the situations in which it occurs Explain: learn the causes that determine when and why a behavior occurs Predict: learn to identify the factors needed to predict when a behavior will occur Control: learn to manipulate the factors needed to produce or eliminate a behavior Theory : formal statement of relationships among variables or abstract concepts (i.e., constructs) Integrated set of proposals that define, explain, organize, and interrelate knowledge about many behaviors theory goals: simplify, organize, explain, predict requires substantial empirical support must be testable/falsifiable should be parsimonious (Occams razor) should interest, inspire others difficult to test directly with single study theories change over time A Theory is not just a hypothesis Cant just have a really good idea, you need support for that theory (not proof) Need a model not limited or narrow, simple design theory vs. model models less broad, less ambitious a description that explains the process underlying particular behaviors...
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Psychology Study Guide Exam 1 - Psychology Study Guide Exam...

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