PS#4 - Sept 15 Answers

PS#4 - Sept 15 Answers - two different gases are mixed, or...

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1. The Second Law of Thermodynamics states A) the total entropy of a system and its surroundings always increases for a spontaneous process. B) temperatures will always decrease. C) the total energy of a system and its surroundings is constant. D) diversity is the result of gradual evolution. E) None of the above. Ans: A 2. If a particular reaction has a negative G, is it likely to occur? A) Not unless energy is added to the system. B) Yes, if it is coupled to another reaction. C) Yes, it is spontaneous. D) No, it will never occur. E) Yes, if it takes place within a constrained area. Ans: C 3. How can a cell exist if the Second Law of Thermodynamics is true? Ans: Entropy in a local area can be decreased, but only at the expense of increased entropy in the larger area, or universe. 4. Provide a simple example of entropy processes. Ans: Several examples can be provided, including the random mixture of atoms when
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Unformatted text preview: two different gases are mixed, or the creation of water molecules from energy gained following the mixture of oxygen and hydrogen under certain conditions. 5. What does this equation mean: G = H system T S system < 0? Ans: The free energy change ( G) must be negative for a reaction to be spontaneous. Only under these conditions can the total entropy increase. 6. What are the enthalpy and entropy changes that accompany the formation of DNA double helixes from complementary single strands of DNA? Ans: There is a loss of entropy from the system because there are fewer degrees of freedom in the double helix as compared to the single strands. Therefore, heat must be released when the two strands combine to form the double helix so as not to violate the Second Law of Thermodynamics....
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