Chapter 4 Notes 9-15-09 - Chapter 4 Sensation and...

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Chapter 4 Sensation and Perception
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Sensation and Perception Sensation is the conversion of energy from the environmt into responses by your nervous system. Perception is the interpretation of that information. ___Sensation__ - it is the stimulation of sensory organs – eyes, ears, skin, and the transmission of sensory info to the brain ____Perception_ - is the process of organizing, integrating, interpreting of that information, by which we understand sensory info. Sensing the World Around Us _Stimuli___ are energies in the environment that affect what we do. _Receptors_ are the specialized cells in our bodies that convert environmental energies into signals for the nervous system. The Detection of Light Light is the stimulus that the visual system is designed to detect. The __pupil_ is an adjustable opening in the eye through which light enters. The __iris__ is the structure on the surface of the eye, surrounding the pupil, and containing the muscles that make the pupil dilate or constrict.
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The Structure of the Eye The cornea is a rigid, transparent structure on the very outer surface of the eyeball. It focuses light by directing it through the pupil . When the light goes through the pupil, it is directed to the lens . The lens is a flexible structure that can vary in thickness, enabling the eye to accommodate, adjusting its focus for objects at different distances. The lens directs the light through a clear, jellylike substance called the vitreous humor to the back of the eyeball . At the back of the eye is the retina (a neural tissue lining back of eye), and the structure containing the visual receptors.
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Presbyopia develops as humans age because the lens decreases in flexibility, resulting in a reduced ability to focus on nearby objects. Elongated eyeballs cause myopia, also called nearsightedness.
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