Chapter 8 Notes 10-8-09

Chapter 8 Notes 10-8-09 - Chapter 8 Cognition and Language

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Chapter 8 Cognition and Language
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Cognition  =  ____thinking_____ , gaining knowledge Language  = is a system of arbitrary _symbols_, combined to create meaningful  statements. Cognitive psychologists   study  _how_ people think and acquire knowledge Attention  =  is the tendency to respond selectively to stimuli Finding an  _unusual_  feature or figure relies on a  preattentive  process,  a procedure for  extracting  information automatically or  simultaneously across a large portion of the visual field Finding a  _typical_  feature or figure requires an  attentive process,  procedure that  considers  only one part of the visual field at a time. Shifting attention  =  When we intentionally  _focus_  our attention to  a particular stimulus, it is difficult to attend to other things
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Figure 8.4 Figure 8.4 Each gauge represents a measurement of a different variable in a machine. For the top row, the operator must check gauges one at a time. In the bottom row all the safe ranges are now in the safe ranges. See the green colors, all on the right side of the dials, where it should be. The operator detects an unsafe reading preattentively .
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PLAY VIDEO Change blindness Remember we spoke of the concept of the sensory memory People believe they remember everything in a scene they have recently scanned But they frequently fail to detect changes in parts of a scene upon viewing it again This common failure is referred to as change blindness
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Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder ADD = characterized by easy distraction, impulsiveness, moodiness and inability to  follow through on plans.  When the symptoms include  noticeable  fidgetiness, the  condition is referred to as Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Categorization The  _formation_  of categories or concepts is one of the primary ways that we  organize information about our world. In general we  categorize  people, objects or events together when they have  important qualities in common. There are a number of ways to categorize:  Prototypes A prototype is a ___________________ or typical example of a category. We decide whether or not an object belongs in a category by determining how 
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This note was uploaded on 01/25/2010 for the course PSYCHOLOGY 830:101 taught by Professor Garybrill during the Spring '09 term at Rutgers.

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Chapter 8 Notes 10-8-09 - Chapter 8 Cognition and Language

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