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RU+-+Chapt+14+for+students - Chapter 14 Personality...

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Chapter 14 Personality
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Personality Personality derives from the Latin word persona , which translates into English as “ _mask__ .” In psychology, personality is defined as the consistent ways in which one person’s behavior _differ__ from that of others, especially in social contexts. Some psychologists have developed “grand _theories_ of personality. Others have tried to identify personality types and describe why an individual classified as a certain “personality type” _behaves_ in certain ways.
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Personality Freud and the _psychodynamic_ approach Sigmund Freud, an Austrian physician, developed the first psychodynamic theory of personality. Psychodynamic __theory_ relates personality to the interplay of conflicting forces within the individual. The individual may not be aware of these forces that influence thought and behavior.
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Psychoanalytic Perspective In his clinical practice, Freud  encountered patients suffering  from  __nervous_  disorders. Their  complaints could not be explained  in terms of purely  _physical_   causes. Freud’s clinical experience led him  to develop the first comprehensive  theory of  _personality_ , which  included the  unconscious mind psychosexual stages,   and  defense  mechanisms. Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) Culver Pictures
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Figure 14.2 FIGURE 14.2 Freud believed that psychoanalysis could bring parts of the unconscious into the conscious mind, where the client could deal with them.
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Exploring the Unconscious A reservoir ( _unconscious_  mind ) of mostly unacceptable thoughts, wishes,  feelings, and memories. Freud asked patients to say whatever came to their minds  ( _free_  association ) in order to tap the unconscious.  The process of free association (chain of thoughts) leads to  _painful_ , embarrassing  unconscious memories. Once these memories are retrieved and released ( treatment:  psychoanalysis ) the patient feels better.
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Freud’s search for the unconscious & catharsis: He was influenced by the psychiatrist Josef Breuer, who encouraged patients to recall and discuss the details of _traumatic_ early life experiences in order to relieve the physical complaints. Breuer and Freud referred to this _process_ as catharsis . This means the emotional release an experience or feeling of spiritual release and purification brought about by an intense emotional experience Freud later expanded this “ _talking_ cure” into a method of explaining the workings of personality, based on the interplay of conscious and unconscious internal forces, and called it psychoanalysis The unconscious mind _contains_ memories, emotions and thoughts, some of which are irrational or socially unacceptable.
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