BME303_lecture8 - BME303 Intro. to Computing Chapter 4: Von...

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BME303 Intro. to Computing Chapter 4: Von Neumann Model
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BME303 Intro. to Computing Feedback Time Five minutes to complete! Help improve the class! Help you get better grades! https://web.austin.utexas.edu/diia/oca/ 2
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BME303 Intro. to Computing 3 Problem Language Machine (ISA) Architecture Algorithms Micro-architecture Circuits Devices Data paths, von Neumann model… Bottom Up LC-3: Little Computer 3
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BME303 Intro. to Computing 4 The von Neumann Machine Model June 1945: John Von Neumann published a paper, in which he presented all of the basic elements of a stored-program computer: 1. A calculating unit capable of performing both arithmetic and logical operations on the data. 2. A memory containing both data and instructions. Also to allow both data and instruction memory locations to be read from, and written to, in any desired order. 3. A control unit, which could interpret an instruction retrieved from the memory and select alternative courses of action based on the results of previous operations. John von Neumann Copyright (c) 1997. Maxfield & Montrose Interactive Inc.
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BME303 Intro. to Computing 5 Von Neumann Model Memory Processing Unit Input Output MAR MDR ALU TEMP Control Unit PC IR * keyboard * monitor
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BME303 Intro. to Computing 6 Bus and Cache Level 2 cache , cache memory that is external to the microprocessor. In general, L2 cache memory, also called the secondary cache , resides on a separate chip from the microprocessor chip. Although, more and more microprocessors are including L2 caches into their architectures. How big can the L1 and L2 cache be in intel Core 2 Duo CPU? Backside bus : A microprocessor bus that connects the CPU to a Level 2 cache usually at the full speed of CPU Frontside bus : The bus that connects the CPU to main memory on the motherboard. Fraction of speed of CPU Level 1 cache : caches are built into the architecture of microprocessors.
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BME303 Intro. to Computing 7 Memory 2 k x m array of stored bits – Chapter 3 example: 2 2 x 3 – Today’s typical computer: 2 28 x 8 = 256 MB – LC3 2 16 x 16 •Address – unique ( k -bit) identifier of location •Contents m -bit value stored in location Basic Operations: LOAD read a value from a memory location STORE write a value to a memory location address contents
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BME303 Intro. to Computing 8 Interface to Memory How does processing unit get data to/from memory? MAR : Memory Address Register MDR : Memory Data Register To LOAD from a location (A): 1. Write the address (A) into the MAR. 2. Send a “read” signal to the memory. 3. Read the data from MDR. ME MO RY MA R MD R A Read/ LOAD data
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BME303 Intro. to Computing 9 Interface to Memory How does processing unit get data to/from memory? MAR
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BME303_lecture8 - BME303 Intro. to Computing Chapter 4: Von...

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