BME303_lecture13 - BME303 Intro. to Computing Chapter 8:...

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BME303 Intro. to Computing 1 Chapter 8: Input/Output (I/O) I/O Basics – Device registers – Memory-mapped I/O vs. Special I/O instructions – Asynchronous vs. Synchronous Input from the Keyboard Output to the monitor Interrupt-Driven I/O
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BME303 Intro. to Computing 2 Input/Output (I/O) Devices Input: Devices for transferring information to the computer, such as keyboard, mouse, scanner, card reader, disk Output: Devices for transferring information from the computer, such as console, printer, LED display, disk
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BME303 Intro. to Computing ECG 3
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BME303 Intro. to Computing 4 Cyber Glove What are the potential applications?
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BME303 Intro. to Computing Motion Capture 5 A high-resolution active marker system with 3,600 × 3,600 resolution at 480 hertz providing real time submillimeter positions. http://www.phasespace.com/gallery.php?movie=6
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BME303 Intro. to Computing 6 Virtual Reality in Protein Visualizations
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BME303 Intro. to Computing 7 I/O for the LC-3 (keyboard/console) I/O for the LC-3 could be accomplished via the TRAP instruction Different types of I/O service can be requested by choosing an appropriate trapvector (TV) for this instruction Trap Vector Name Description (Appendix A, page 543) x20 GETC Reads a single character from the keyboard and stores its ZEXT ASCII code in R0 (no echo on the console). x21 OUT Writes a character in R0<7:0> to the console. x22 PUTS Writes the string beginning at M[R0] to the console. x23 IN Prints prompt on console, reads a character from the keyboard that is echoed on the console, then stores its ZEXT ASCII code in R0. x24 PUTSP see Appendix A, table A.2, page 543. x25 HALT Prints message to console; halts execution.
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BME303 Intro. to Computing 8 Device Registers • Two device registers: – One of these stores data being transferred between the computer and the device – Another stores the status of the device, e.g., whether it is available or still busy with an earlier I/O task. • In the LC-3: – Keyboard: KBDR KBSR – Monitor: DDR DSR
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BME303 Intro. to Computing 9 Memory-Mapped vs. I/O Instructions •Instructions – designate opcode(s) for I/O – register and operation encoded in instruction •Memory-mapped (LC-3) – assign a memory address to each device register – use existing data movement instructions (LD/ST) for control and data transfer KDR
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BME303 Intro. to Computing 10 Transfer Timing I/O events generally happen much slower than CPU cycles. •Synchronous – data supplied at a fixed, predictable rate – CPU reads/writes every X cycles •Asynchronous – data rate less predictable – CPU must synchronize with device, so that it doesn’t miss data or write too quickly
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BME303 Intro. to Computing 11 Transfer Timing • Are the following interaction usually synchronous or asynchronous? – Between a remote control and a television set
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This note was uploaded on 01/24/2010 for the course BME 303 taught by Professor Ren during the Fall '08 term at University of Texas at Austin.

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BME303_lecture13 - BME303 Intro. to Computing Chapter 8:...

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