Chemistry 228 Chapter Notes

Chemistry 228 Chapter Notes - Chemistry 228 Chapter Notes...

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Chemistry 228 Chapter Notes IR and NMR Spectroscopy (from chapters 2 and 9) Homework: From chapter two:  2. 29,  31 and 47;   from chapter four:  4 .50, and 51; and from                       chapter nine:   9. 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 35, and 36. Electromagnetic Radiation Basics • Refresh your memory on basic theory - see general chemistry test and/or physics text. • Relationships among E, h, c, λ , ν . Equations will be given; know how to use them. spectrum IR spectroscopy • Understand the theory of IR spectroscopy. • How is IR electromagnetic radiation absorbed by organic molecules ? • How are dipole moment changes and the observations that the C C stretch of ethyne, the C=C stretch of ethene, and the symmetric stretch of methane are not observed in the IR ? • Be able to use a table relating frequency range of absorption to identify functional groups. • Mono and di substituted benzenes give a characteristic IR pattern in the 680 to 860 cm -1 region. Be able to predict the substitution pattern of substituted benzenes given this data. • How is λ related to ν ? NMR spectroscopy • Understand the theory of NMR spectroscopy. • What is nuclear spin ? • How is NMR electromagnetic radiation absorbed by organic molecules ? • What is TMS and how is δ (chemical shift) defined ?
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• How do Fourier transform (FT) instruments differ from sweep (CW) instruments ? • Be able to draw a block diagram of a CW NMR spectrometer. • Why are FT NMR spectrometers filled with liquid helium and nitrogen ? • How is chemical shift related to electronegativity and hybridization of groups attached ? • Be able to use a 1 H NMR which contains splitting patterns and integrations along with a table relating chemical shift range to determine the structure of an organic molecule. • Be able to predict 1 H NMR and 13 C NMR (BB only) spectra for organic molecules • What is a DEPT Spectrum ? Mass spectroscopy • What is it? How does it work? Tying it all together. • Be able to use data from IR and NMR to determine the structure of an organic molecule.
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Chapter 11 Notes Homework: 11. 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 32, 33, 34, 37, and 47. • Nomenclature of simple alcohols and ethers • Physical properties of alcohols and ethers. • Hydrogen bonding - what is it ? • Synthesis of alcohols - acid-catalyzed hydration - limitations of this method - regiochemistry: Markovnikov. Why ? - stereochemistry: racemic. Why ? - oxymercuration-demercuration - regiochemistry: Markovnikov. Why ? - stereochemistry: racemic. Why ? - Be able to demonstrate why alkyl or hydride migration in the carbocation is rare. - hydroboration-oxidation and hydroboration-protonolysis
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Chemistry 228 Chapter Notes - Chemistry 228 Chapter Notes...

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