Chapter6 - Chapter 6:Second Law of Thermodynamics...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 6:Second Law of Thermodynamics Objective: Introduction to second law of thermodynamics: qualitative description Topics to be covered Overview of 2 nd law Background: thermal reservoirs, heat engines, refrigeration & heat pump Kelvin-Plank and Clausius statements of 2 nd law thermodynamics Reversible & Irreversibilities Carnot Cycle Absolute temperature scale 1 st Law is inadequate in analyzing thermodynamics processes Observation: Heat is always transferred from hot medium to cold medium. Heat and Work are not equivalent Observation: Work can be transformed into heat by 100%; but heat can not produce work by 100%. Observation: Mixing of different fluids cannot be reversed by reversing the crank. Mixing of different substances Thermodynamic Laws 0 th Law Equilibrium state -> Temperature 1 st Law Conservation of energy-> Internal Energy 2 nd Law- Direction of process-> Entropy 3 rd Law Entropy of pure crystalline =0 at T=0 K Quantification of Possible and Best Processes Is this process possible? If yes, what is the upper limit of performance? What can be done to improve the process? Roadmap of 2 nd Law Chapter 6: concepts ! ! ! " ! ! ! # $ ! ! ! % ! ! ! & = ( ) * + ,- < . . reversible T Q le irreversib T Q Inequality Clausius rev Chapter 7: quantification: entropy ! " ! # $ ! % ! & ( ) * + ,- = rev T Q Entropy of t Developmen ds ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! " ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! # $ ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! % ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! & = = = = = / = ( ) * + ,- = = = ture tempera T Q energetic more moelcules the make to required heat 1 ln i.e. 1 materials crystal 0, T at 2) T Q ) ln( states 1)possible : entropy of meaning rev rev ds k s s w w w d k ds w k s ic microscop ! ! " ! ! # $ ! ! % ! ! & ! " ! # $ < = > = / impossible reversible le irreversib S S isolated S Principle Entropy of Increase The total gen ! applications !...
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Chapter6 - Chapter 6:Second Law of Thermodynamics...

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