Occupational Lecture 3 Wolf Notes

Occupational Lecture 3 Wolf Notes -...

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PS2004 Applied Psychology: Occupational Lecture 3 – Leadership in   Organisations As we go through today’s lecture consider the following questions: Is there one best way to lead people? What (if anything) is the role of the situation? What are the affects of “good” or “bad” leadership on job satisfaction,  organisational commitment, organisational citizenship, etc? Leadership is considered to be the process by which an individual influences  others. More specifically it is considered to influence others to achieve a  vision or a set of goals (Robbins & Judge; 2008)  Leaders are appointed, elected or informally chosen (Fielder, 1995) Waldman and Yammarino (1999) argued that impressions of leaders are  formed differently depending on what interactions you have with the leader. In  addition they argue that it is important to focus on the dynamics of the  relationship between leaders and followers rather than what leaders actually  do   The main approaches to leadership include trait theories, behavioural theories  and situational theories.  Trait approach : Stogdill, 1974; House and Baetz; 1979 found that Leaders tend to be higher  than non leaders on; intelligence, dominance/ need for power, self confidence,  energy/persistence, knowledge of the task Geier (1967) Reviewed 20 leadership studies into traits and concluded that  there is no definitive way in which we can differentiate leaders from followers.  Out of the 20 studies they reviewed they found 80 leadership characteristics,  however there were only 5 of these that were common to 4 of the studies! The  study failed to identify a set of traits that ALWAYS differentiate leaders from  non- leaders, or effective leaders from ineffective leaders.  House and Baetz (1979) Argued that a leaders personal characteristics must  be expressed in their behaviour in order for them to be relevant. Different  tasks require different leader characteristics and behaviours Behavioural Approach: Ohio State Studies ; Stogdill and Coons (1951) 2 behavioural dimensions;
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Initiating Structure  – the extent to which a leader is likely to define and  structure his or her role and those of subordinates in the search for goal  attainment Consideration  – the extent to which a leader is likely to have job relationships 
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Occupational Lecture 3 Wolf Notes -...

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