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PS2006_Paranoia_and_Reasons_for_Beliefs - PS2006 Induced...

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PS2006 Induced Paranoia and Justifications for Personal Beliefs Abstract Objectives, Design, Methods, Results, Conclusions Background The following section gives you an introduction to the literature. By all means use this as a source for writing up your own introduction, however, you MUST NOT copy this. Your introduction must be written in your own words. Extra marks will be offered to those who show evidence of further reading. Begin your introduction by reviewing the literature. Include research on self- consciousness/self-reference in people with delusions. Include research on reasoning in people with delusions. Include some information on the continuity model of psychosis. Write a paragraph which justifies why this study was carried out – previous literature has revealed x and y, but so far z has not been examined, therefore the current study will attempt to fill this gap in the literature. In outlining the rationale, make sure you tell the reader just what the aims of the study are. Finish off with the hypothesis. The continuity model of mental illness (e.g. Claridge, 1988; Claridge & Beech, 1995; Galbraith, Manktelow & Morris, in press) contends that psychotic symptoms are continuous with normality: at one end of the continuum lie normal healthy cognitions and behaviour, at the opposite end of the spectrum lie the characteristics of mental
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illness. However, mild or sub-clinical versions of psychotic characteristics can be found, to varying degrees, across the spectrum. This sub-clinical category of psychotic behaviour is referred to as schizotypy (Claridge, 1988; Meehl, 1962, 1990). By this rationale, many of the symptoms of mental illness are common in people without diagnoses, albeit in moderate form, and hence may be adaptive and beneficial. In line with the continuity model of mental illness, the current study investigates sub-clinical Paranoia and its effect upon everyday reasoning. Sass and Parnas (2003) argue that people with a diagnosis of schizophrenia experience an exaggerated self-consciousness or hyperreflexivity (Sass, 1992), which is characterised by an excessive tendency to focus awareness upon the self. They propose that this extreme self-focus can lead to a profound disorder of the self (ipseity disturbance), or to a disruption of what is otherwise our tacit sense of awareness. Sass and Parnas (2003) propose that hyperreflexivity, rather than heightening one’s sense of self, actually lessens it. Drawing on the work of Polanyi (1964, 1967), they argue that tacitness is central to our sense of self, because that which we know tacitly is that which we inhabit. Hence selfhood is not characterised by a separate process of self- monitoring, or self-consciousness, rather selfhood is prereflective. Sass and Parnas (2003) propose that the early stages of schizophrenia are characterised by hyperreflexivity whereby afflicted individuals increasingly come to scrutinise aspects of the self to the extent that they become alien, detached and objectified. Actions and
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PS2006_Paranoia_and_Reasons_for_Beliefs - PS2006 Induced...

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