Week 1 - the Psychobiology of Language

Week 1 - the Psychobiology of Language - Week 1 - Semester...

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Week 1 - Semester 2 The Psychobiology of Language Dr Niall Galbraith Summary of Lecture - Lateralisatiom - Localised brain areas for language - Nonfluent aphasis - Wernicke's aphasia - Analysis of Broca's and Wernicke's work - Conclusions Lateralisation - In approximately 95% of right-handed people - left hemisphere is dominant for language - 70% in left-handed people - Possibly because left hemisphere concerned with sequential processing - e.g. motor coordination Localised Brain Areas for Language Broca's Area: - Pierre-Paul Broca (1824-1880) - treated a patient who had impaired ability to produce speech. - Could only utter, "tan, tan". Or "Sacre nom de dieu." - Paralysis on right side of body. - Could comprehend the language. - After patient's death - autopsy revealed a tumour in left hemisphere of frontal lobe. - Broca collected additional evidence over time. - damage to the same area - nonfluent aphasia. Wernicke's Area: - CARL Wernicke (1848-1905) - identified another brain area responsible for language. - identified patients who could produce clear speech - but who could not engage in coherent conversation nor understand the speech of others. - fluent aphasia - clear but meaningless speesh, poor speech comprehension. - this impairment in speech was linked with damage to the upper left temporal lobe. Broca's aphasia: - nonfluent speech - slow, laboured & stunted speech, difficult to produce words. - spontaneous production of simple phrases often remains intact: "Hello." - Impairment of speech production - impairments in writing - agraphia - impairments in reading - alexia - sufferers may often have hemiplegia - paralysis on one side of the body -
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usually on the right side - as lesion often extends to the motor cortex in left hemisphere - near Broca's area. Broca's aphasia: - agrammatism - difficulty in applying grammar to speech - anomia - inability to find the correct words - often substitute words for incorrect words. - articulation - mispronunciation of words - "widnow" instead of "window".
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Week 1 - the Psychobiology of Language - Week 1 - Semester...

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