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BiologyTANotes - What is the Science of Biology? 9/26...

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What is the Science of Biology? 9/26 Principles underlying all Science: % All events can be attributed to natural causes -Explanations don’t invoke supernatural powers -Do not specifically exclude them, they just cant be studied using science % Natural laws apply at all places and all times % People perceive events in similar ways Misconceptions about science 1. Scientists “prove” things 2. “It is just a theory” 3. Science vs. Religion The Scientific Method Observation--> Something unexpected happens Hypothesis--> Explanation; if/then prediction Experiment-->Controlled test; Challenge prediction Conclusion-->Supports or doesn’t support hypothesis -If data doesn’t support hyp, then modify hyp and experiment again Penicillin % Fleming, 1920 % Culture dish became contaminated % Bacteria wouldn't grow near Penicillium mold -Fleming realized this was important % Extracted fluid from mold % Found fluid inhibited bacterial growth % Later isolated as penicillin Scientific Theories % A general statement about how things operate-theory % Derived through inductive reasoning -taking results of experiments and putting them together to explain how something works % Has survived through challenges % Never permanent or final “truth”
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-Always provisional -Always subject to change or replacement % Used to propose hypotheses (deductive reasoning ) -specific observations ?) Francisco Redi designed an experiment to test the notion of spontaneous generation. In the experiment he left the first jar of meat open to air and covered second jar of meat. The first jar would be called the ___ jar? -CONTROL. Closed jar is EXPERIMENTAL. It is experimental bc you have manipulated the situation. 9/28 What are the Characteristics of Living Things? 1. Complex and organized 2. Must get material and energy 3. Homeostasis (stay the same) maintains internal conditions 4. Growth 5. Respond to stimuli 6. Reproduce themselves 7. Capacity to evolve % Salt; Organized but simple % Oceans: Complex but unorganized % Water flea; Organized and complex Levels of Biological Organization, Most complex to least complex: % Biosphere-earth’s surface % Ecosystem-food chain % Community-animals % Population-animals % Multicellular organism-one mammal % Organ system-the nervous system % Organ-the brain % Tissue-nervous tissue % Cell-nerve cell % Organelle-nucleus, mitochondrion % Molecule-glucose
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% Atom-hydrogen % Subatomic-proton Characteristics: Respond to Stimuli % Changes in internal environment -temperature -water level -blood sugar level % Changes in external environment -seek food or water -avoid bitterness -plants grow toward light Characteristics: Homeostasis % Means “staying the same” % Cells and/or whole body maintain conditions w/i a certain range % Feedback mechanisms accomplish this -E.G., body temp; we sweat when hot and shiver when cold Characteristics: Acquire Materials and Energy % Homeostasis requires energy -Opposes natural trend to disintegration
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This note was uploaded on 01/26/2010 for the course BIOL 1001 taught by Professor Minor during the Fall '08 term at LSU.

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BiologyTANotes - What is the Science of Biology? 9/26...

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