GLG101 Exam 1 Study Guide

GLG101 Exam 1 Study Guide - C hapter 1: The Natu re of...

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Chapter 1: The Nature of Geology Sketch and describe the major layers of Earth. In addition, sketch and describe the difference between continental crust and oceanic crust and between lithosphere and asthenosphere. (1.3) o Layers of Earth Continental/Oceanic Crust Continental: similar composition to granite countertop, 35-40km thick Oceanic: composed of basalt, a lava rock, 7km thick Mantle – 2900km Upper: composed of a green mineral olivine Lower: similar composition to the upper, includes minerals found at high pressures, solid, but with partially molten areas, slow moving solid Core – consists of iron and nickel Upper: molten, 2200km Lower: solid, 1200km o Continental v. Oceanic Crust Composition: oceanic contains denser rocks, causing areas to be well below sea level Thickness: continental crust is thicker o Lithosphere v. Asthenoshpere Lithosphere is stronger than the asthenoshpere Temperature: the rock in the asthenosphere is much hotter, causing the lithosphere above to be able to flow Sketch a version of the rock cycle, labeling and explaining, in your own words, all the key processes. (1.6) o Weathering Exposure to the elements can break rock down or alter rocks, this creates sediment o Erosion and Transport Weathered rocks can be stripped by erosion, also they can be transported by gravity and water o Deposition Sediment is deposited in river beds or the ocean o Burial and Lithification Once deposited, sediment can be buried due to the weight of other sediment, could also be cemented together by chemicals o Deformation and Metamorphism Rock could be subject to strong forces which fold it layers or if buried deep enough, heat can deform and new rock can form
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o Melting Rock at high temperature can melt and become motlen/magma o Solidification Magma cools, hardens back into rock, can happen at a depth or at the surface o Uplift At any point in the cycle rock can be uplifted back to the surface, usually in
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This note was uploaded on 01/26/2010 for the course GLG 101 taught by Professor Johnosn during the Spring '08 term at ASU.

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GLG101 Exam 1 Study Guide - C hapter 1: The Natu re of...

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