Eng 45 - Chapter 1 - Structure(9)

Eng 45 Chapter 1 - Materials Scien ce Fall 2007 sarily help The equilibrium state of an iron-carbon alloy at ambient temperature and pressure is a

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Materials Science Fall, 2007 Page 8 sarily help. The equilibrium state of an iron-carbon alloy at ambient temperature and pressure is a simple physical mixture of almost pure iron and pure graphite whose mechanical properties are, if anything, less attractive than those of iron itself. But if a bit of carbon is dissolved in iron and the alloy is heated, deformed, and cooled quickly, it becomes a new material, called martensitic steel , that has a useful strength more than ten times that of soft iron. The transmutation of soft iron to hardened steel is not alchemy. The atoms are the same; only their arrangement has been changed. Silicon in its pure, equilibrium state is a gray, brittle material that is a poor con- ductor of electricity. But if the right solutes are added in an inhomogeneous, non-equilib- rium distribution that has just the right morphology, the chemically doped silicon becomes a microelectronic device of enormous versatility and power. Carbon in its pure, equilibrium state is called graphite. Graphite is a flaky, rela-
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This note was uploaded on 01/26/2010 for the course ENGLISH 45 taught by Professor Morris during the Spring '10 term at University of California, Berkeley.

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Eng 45 Chapter 1 - Materials Scien ce Fall 2007 sarily help The equilibrium state of an iron-carbon alloy at ambient temperature and pressure is a

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