Eng 45 - Chapter 1 - Structure(14)

Eng 45 - Chapter 1 - Structure(14) - Materials Scien ce...

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Materials Science Fall, 2007 Page 13 Chapter 2: Bonding Chapter 2: Bonding The more we stick together, Together, together The more we stick together the happier we'll be - anonymous (for good reason) 2.1 INTRODUCTION The fundamental reason that atoms bond together into molecules and solids is the electrostatic attraction between negatively charged electrons and positively charged nuclei. Since the atoms are relatively close together in a solid, their outer, valence electrons are simultaneously attracted to several different nuclei and, therefore, have lower average energy than they would if the atoms were widely separated. The energy that is released when atoms join together to form solids is called the cohesive energy or binding energy of the solid. In principle, one can solve the equations of the quantum theory to find the electron states in a molecule or solid and calculate its binding energy. In practice, this can only be done for the simplest molecules. A small volume of a real material contains
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Eng 45 - Chapter 1 - Structure(14) - Materials Scien ce...

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