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Eng 45 - Chapter 1 - Structure(16)

Eng 45 - Chapter 1 - Structure(16) - Materials Scien ce...

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Materials Science Fall, 2007 Page 15 The principal quantum number , n, identifies the primary orbit of the electron. Its possible values are the positive integers. The energy of the electron increases monotoni- cally with the value of n. The azimuthal quantum number , l, specifies the total angular momentum of the electron. Its value, l, is equal to the number of nodes in the angular part of the electron wave function, which must be an integer such that l n-1. Hence there are n-1 possible values of l. The electron energy increases monotonically with the magnitude of the angular momentum, and, hence, increases with l. It is common to denote the values of l = 0,1,2,3 by the lower case letters s,p,d,f; hence the "2p orbital" indicates a state with n = 2, l = 1. Since angular momentum is a vector, it has a definite direction in space. When the atom is placed in a field that establishes an axis in space then the direction of the angular momentum vector is quantized so that its component along that axis has one of several possible discrete values. These values are specified by the quantum number, m,
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