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Eng 45 - Chapter 1 - Structure(17)

Eng 45 - Chapter 1 - Structure(17) - Materials Scien ce...

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Materials Science Fall, 2007 Page 16 row of the periodic table. Their electron configurations are determined by adding 3s and 3p electrons to the electron configuration of Ne. The 3s and 3p orbitals are filled in the ground state of Ar, whose configuration terminates with the filled shells 3s 2 3p 6 . The third electron shell also contains a d-orbital (l = 2) with 10 electron states. However, because the energy of an orbital increases with its angular momentum as well as with its principal quantum number, the 3d orbitals have higher energy than the 4s. The fourth row of the periodic table therefore begins with the elements K (...4s 1 ) and Ca (...4s 2 ). The 3d shell is then filled through the sequence of 10 transition metals Sc (3d 1 4s 2 ) to Zn (3d 10 4s 2 ). The ground state electronic structure of Cu (3d 10 4s 1 ) is anoma- lous; because of electron-electron interactions it is energetically favorable to demote an electron from the 4s shell to fill the last empty state in the 3d. The fourth row is then
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