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BIOL 595-10-15-09 (F 2009)

BIOL 595-10-15-09 (F 2009) - BIOL 595 Vertebrate Todays...

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BIOL 595 10-15-09 Vertebrate
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Today’s Topics 1) Patterning of Mesoderm 1) Germ Layer formation 1) Gastrulation (Morphogenetic Movements) 1) Neural Induction
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Recap 1) Fertilization – Cortical rotation 2) Future dorsal side determination – stabilization of beta-catenin (canonical wnt signaling cascade) 3) Formation of Nieuwkoop center – Induction of mesoderm 4) Formation of the Spemann (Dorsal) organizer
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Mesoderm Induction (Nieuwkoop Experiments)
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The induction of animal hemisphere cells to form mesoderm  occurs in a graded fashion because the vegetal cells emit one  or more graded induction signals to the animal hemisphere  cells Nieuwkoop’s Conclusion
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Two Vegetal Signals I) Vegetal signal (1) specifies ventral mesoderm II) Dorsal signal (2, Nieuwkoop center) specifies Dorsal  mesoderm containing the Spemann organizer
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Dominant-negative mutant receptor Mutation inactivates a particular cellular  function by the production of a defective RNA  or protein that blocks the normal function of  the gene product 
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Depletion of VegT Function in Vegetal Region
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Xenopus nodal-related (Xnr) Genes
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Formation of Germ Layers
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