Verbal_Ability - INTRODUCTION TO VERBAL ABILITY The CAT...

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Unformatted text preview: INTRODUCTION TO VERBAL ABILITY The CAT Verbal Ability Section For the past four years, the CAT has been a three-section paper. One of the three sections, tests the candidate on English language ability. The section generally has around 50 questions and can be divided into two - the Verbal Ability section and the section on Reading Comprehension. Let us look at the Verbal Ability section today. Tables I and II give an analysis of the Verbal Ability section in terms of marks and the types of questions that have been given in recent years. TABLE - I Nov. 2004 Section A 1/2 mark Q 1 mark Q Section B 2 mark Q Total Marks 10 x 1/2 = 5 14 x 1 = 14 5 x 2 = 10 29 Feb. 2004 25 25 Nov. 2003 20 20 Nov. 2002 25 25 Nov. 2001 20 20 TABLE - II S. No. 1 Nov. 2004 Topic (a) Paragraph sequencing questions (six sentences) (b) Paragraph questions (five sentences) Grammar-based questions (a) Best way of writing / Conforms to std. eng. usage (b) Identify the incorrect sentence or sentences (c) Fill in the blanks type Sec. A 3 Sec. B 2 Feb. 2004 8 Nov. 2003 5 Nov. 2002 5 - Nov. 2001 5 - 2 3 3 3 2 3 29 5 8 4 25 5 5 5 20 4 6 (1mark) 5 5 25 5 5 5 20 3 4 5 6 Inappropriate usage Sentence Completion (2 blanks) Summary questions Cloze Passage 7 Meaning Usage Match 8 9 Appropriate Substitute Inappropriate Substitute Total 10 (1/2 mark) - - The Verbal Ability section of CAT and similar examinations is designed to test the candidate on the followIng areas. (a) Vocabulary : Vocabulary questions test the candidate’s knowledge of the primary meanings of words, secondary shades of meaning, usage, idioms and phrases, antonyms, related words etc. (b) Grammar : Grammar-based questions test the candidate’s ability to spot and correct grammatical errors. CAT generally tests knowledge of high school level grammar and includes areas like subject-verb agreement, use of modifiers, parellel construction, redundancy, phrasal verbs, use of articles, prepositions etc. (c) Verbal reasoning : Verbal reasoning questions are designed to test the candidate’s ability to identify relationships or patterns within groups of words or sentences. It should be noted that very few question types fall into these neat compartments. Most questions simulteneously test the candidate on several areas. For instance, sentence completion questions test the candidate on vocabulary and verbal reasoning. What you need to crack the Verbal Ability section 1. A good vocabulary : This is a prerequisite for doing well on a number of MBA entrance tests. As far as CAT is concerned, the vocabulary required is not very high in the sense that most of the words that the candidate is tested are those that a well read person would come across in his reading. The CAT tests the candidate’s knolwedge of the usage and secondary shades of meaning of common words like ‘help’, ‘bolt’, ‘passing’ etc. The best way to build vocabulary is by reading as much as possible. Get into the habit of reading newspaper editorials, good books etc. Every time you come across a new word, note it down, refer to a dictionary, learn the various meanings, usages (the prepositions that are to be used with the word), phrasal verbs and idioms related to that word etc. Note down the sentence in which you found the word and make a sentence of your own. Learn words in groups (i.e. when learning a word, learn its synonyms). Also find out whether the word has a positive or a negative connotation or whether it is neutral. Periodically, revise what you have noted down. Remember, words can be forgotten quite easily. The more you revise, the less the chances of forgetting. 2. Some idea of Grammar : As far as grammar is concerned, a sound knowledge of what you learnt in school (or failed to do so!) is all that is needed. Practise grammar exercises. A rule in grammar will be remembered only if you encounter it in usage a number of times. 3. Commonsense : Keep your wits about you. A certain amount of commonsense and logical reasoning is essential for handling questions like paragraph sequencing. 4. Extensive reading : There is no better way to improve your command over the language than reading extensively. Read newspapers, magazines and any good book you can lay your hands on. This will improve your awareness levels, and familiarize you with the nuances of the language and help you read between the lines. Once you are familiar with good writing, you will instinctively identify anything that is incorrect or inappropriate. In the final analysis, your performance on the Verbal Ability section will in the main depend on how well read you are. So read, read, read. The time factor: The Verbal Ability section is generally considered the least challenging section on the CAT. There are few questions that a well-read candidate cannot crack. So, does that mean that you can take it easy? No way. The catch is the time available. The V.A. section is a scoring one, but one cannot afford to spend too much time on it. So, speed is the key, and this is a function of practice and familiarity with question types. So, clearly, the mantra is PRACTICE. Given below are tips on answering some important question types. Study these and answer the questions given below them. Some important question types: 1. Analogies: A pair of words is given followed by four choices. The candidate is expected to identify the relationship between the main pair of words and select the choice in which the pair of words have the same relationship as the words in the question pair have. The words can be antonyms, or synonyms or may bear some other relationship (i.e. workman : tool e.g. surgeon : scalpel). Identify the part of speech of the given words i.e., noun, verb or adjective. Since a given word can have one meaning as verb and an altogether different meaning as noun or adjective, (for eg. ‘appropriate’) check if the given answer pairs bear, a clear and definite relationship. Eliminate those which have no proper relationship and for the remaining choices, look for any secondary meaning and sharply define the relationship between the pair of words. The choice that bears the identical relation as found in the question pair is the best choice. If more than one choice appears to be correct, check if the position of the words is reversed, as it sometimes is. 2. Reverse analogies: These questions are similar to analogy questions, but of the four choices given, three exhibit the same relationship as the main pair of words and only one pair DOES NOT exhibit the same relationship. In other words, identify the odd man out. This is easier than the previous type as there are four pairs of words that reveal the nature of the analogy. 3. Fill in the blanks: The candidate has to select the correct pair of words from the given choices that fit into the blanks in the given sentence. Read the complete sentence with the blank and try to understand the meaning, the tone, the attitude, the style, the type of language used. These could give a clue to the correct word. Think of what word you would use if you had to complete the sentence. See if both blanks take positive words, negative words or one positive and one negative. If you are not sure, try fitting each of the choices in the sentence and see if it sounds apt or jarring. Often two or three of the words may fit in the first blank or the second one and the combination of the two will help you decide on the right choice. 4. Jumbled paragraph: The sentences of a paragraph are jumbled and each sentence is denoted by a letter of the alphabet. The choices give different ways of arranging these sentences and the one which helps build a logically coherent paragraph should be marked as the answer choice. The number of sentences varies from four to six. Read the sentences to grasp the idea conveyed by it. Since they form a paragraph, look for the sentence that can be the opening or the closing sentence of the paragraph. Since the paragraph is built around a central idea, identify the topic sentence (which often begins the paragraph), try and find the logic or reasoning in the paragraph. Look for pronouns (he, they, it etc.) since pronouns stand for the nouns that go before them. This will help you to link the sentences. Look for conjunctions – and, but, though, still, unless, in spits of – that give clues on the order of sentences. 5. Odd man out : In this question type, four words or sentences are given. The candidate has to identify the one which does not belong to the category of the other three and mark that as the answer. So, identify the logic on which three of the four choices can be considered to belong to a group. If all four appear to ‘belong’ to a group, see on what basis one of them can be eliminated from the group. 6. Best summary : A small paragraph is given in the question followed by four choices, all of which seem to mean the same as the original. The candidate has to identify the choice that is the best restatement of the given paragraph and mark that as the answer. The best summary is the one that captures the main points but omits all examples, redundancy, and circumlocution. On reading the question the candidate should make a mental note of the points made and select the answer choice that retains the important points and the tone of the original text. 7. Meaning–Usage match : The candidates are tested on their ability to identify the meaning of word in a context. Each question consists of a word followed by four different dictionary meanings of the word. Four sentences using this word are also given – each sentence using the word with a different meaning – corresponding to the four meanings. The candidate is expected to match each of the meanings with the appropriate sentence that has this meaning. The word may have altogether different meanings or the shades of meaning may be different. The word may sometimes be use as noun, verb, adjective etc. The candidate should zero in on that meaning–sentence combination which he is sure is correct, then look for the choice that has this combination and check out the other combinations in it. 8. Inappropriate substitute : This question type has a word used in a sentence followed by four words given as answer choices. One of these words cannot substitute the question word in the sentence, without altering the meaning. The other three words are synonyms or near synonyms of the word in the sentence. Even if the candidate does not know the word given in the question, he can still identify the synonyms in the answer choices and pick the one that does not mean what the other three mean. Thus, this question type reduces to an oddman out question. 9. Cloze Passage : The is a type of question of the ‘Fill in the Blanks’ variety. In this, a paragraph or a small passage is given with a few blanks which indicate missing words. These blanks are numbered serially. For each blank, four words are given. The candidate has to identify the words that most appropriately fit into the blank and mark them as the answers. In answering this question type, the candidate would do well to read the whole paragraph to get the tone, attitude and a grasp of the content. The candidate should be guided by these when choosing the answers. Often a choice of one word in a blank automatically leads to the next. Hence never approach this in a piecemeal fashion. 10. Facts / inferences / Judgments : This is a question type that tests the ability of the candidate to classify a given statement as a fact or inference or judgment. The candidate should be able judge the nature of statement accurately and quickly. ‘Fact’ is defined as a piece of information that can be verified. ‘Inference’, is what is logically concluded from some data. ‘Judgment’ is what is in the nature of an opinion. In tackling this, the candidate should decide which sentence he is very confident about. For example, if you are sure that something is a ‘fact’, look for answer choices in which this is right, then verify the others given in that choice and choose the option in which the classification is correct. 11. Fill in the blanks (Grammar) : In this type of question, a part of a sentence is left blank and is followed by four choices. The candidate is expected to pick the option which when inserted into the blank, makes the sentence grammatically correct. In grammar questions, the main areas covered are, subject-verb agreement, positioning of the adverb, phrasal verbs, the infinitive, correlative conjunctions, modifiers, gerund form, prepositions etc. When answering these questions it may help to underline in the four choices, where the variations are and rule out ones you are sure are incorrect. 12. Inappropriate usage: A word is used in four different ways and the candidate has to identify the sentence in which the given word is used in a way that does not conform to standard English usage. Remember that it may be incorrect or inappropriate – meaning that a particular word may be grammatically wrong or inappropriate in the context. Here again the areas covered are articles, subject verb agreement, singular-plural in nouns or pronouns, preposition, position of the adverb, phrasal verbs, idioms etc. Sometimes a word that is close to the appropriate word is used. For example, ‘host’ may be used instead of ‘home’. Here again, what is tested is familiarity with the language and hence a wide reading is useful. Test Ref: TEP0503 Time: 40 minutes DIRECTIONS for questions 1 to 4: Each question has a word that has been used in a sentence that gives its contextual usage. From the choices, choose the word that is the most appropriate substitue for the question word, in the context. 1. Scoffed(at): A 20% growth in exports is not something to be scoffed at. (1) tanned (2) appreciated (3) devalued Flamboyance: Mr. Sarkar is known for his flamboyance but little else. (1) exaggeration (2) flagellation (3) industry Reiterate: The minister in his speech has reiterated the established policy stance. (1) repeated (2) opposed (3) supported (4) followed 2. (4) ostentation 3. (4) encouraged 4. Corroborative: It is not always possible to obtain corroborative evidence in insurgency cases. (1) authentic (2) misleading (3) spurious (4) confirmative DIRECTIONS for questions 5 to 8: For each word given below, a contextual usage is provided. From the alternatives given, pick the word that is the most inappropriate substitute for the question word, in the given context. 5. Jaundiced: The disillusioned prisoners of war developed a jaundiced view of the UN’s peace intiatives. (1) cynical (2) puerile (3) pessimistic (4) disenchanted Desecrated: The suburb was tense after an idol had seen desecrated by hooligans. (1) vandalized (2) violated (3) defaced Winding: Driving down the winding ghat roads requires great caution and skill. (1) serpentine (2) aligned (3) sinuous 6. (4) impaired 7. (4) tortuous 8. Straitened: The sudden death of the patriarch left the family in straitened circumstances. (1) penurious (2) destitute (3) dire (4) impoverished DIRECTIONS for Questions 9 to 12: In each question, the word at the top of the table is used in four different ways, numbered 1 to 4. Choose the option in which the usage of the word is INCORRECT or INAPPROPRIATE. 9. Shadow 1 The children were having fun chasing each other’s shadow. 2 Though I tried hard, her work put mine in the shadow. 3 People live under the shadow of fear in a military regime. 4 I knew beyond a shadow of doubt that he was lying. 10. Bill 1 Post the bill quickly lest anyone should notice it. 2 His suffering from severe cold can be easily made out from his bill. 3 Look how sharp the bill of that woodpecker is. 4 The bill was passed by 290 votes to 85. 11. Concerned 1 We should make no compromise where safety is concerned. 2 Parents are concerned about excessive violence on television. 3 They were more concerned about how the speaker was dressed than about what she was saying. 4 She has started making a concerned effort to find a job. 12. Flag 1 Unless we flag him without food for two more days, he will not speak the truth. 2 Though indefatigable, he began to flag before the match ended. 3 Can you flag all the relevant pages in this book? 4 No other flag can be hoisted here except ours. DIRECTIONS for questions 13 to 16: Select the correct word/words from the choices that complete the given sentence. Please note that more than once choice may fit in to make a syntactically correct sentence but select the choice that is logical in the context of the sentence. 13. An experienced politician, who knew better than to launch a campaign in troubled political waters, she intended to wait for a more ______ occasion before she announced her plans. (1) propitious (2) provocative (3) questionable (4) perfect 14. The judge ruled that the evidence was inadmissible on the grounds that it was not ______ to the issue at hand (1) useful (2) germane (3) manifest (4) inchoate 15. To seek ______ from the ______ summer of the plains, many people prefer going to cooler climes during the summer months. (1) refuge . . . scalding (2) shelter . . . boiling (3) respite . . . scorching (4) solace . . . blazing 16. The columnist was almost ______ when he mentioned his friends but he was unpleasant and even ______ when he discussed people who irritated him. (1) recalcitrant . . . sarcastic (2) reverential . . . acrimonious (3) sensitive . . . remorseful (4) insipid . . . militant DIRECTIONS for questions 17 to 21: Fill the blanks in the passages below with the most appropriate word from the options given for each gap. The right words are the ones used by the author. Be guided by the author’s overall style and meaning when you choose the answers. Twenty-five years ago, when Mauritius gained independence from Britain, this nation of 1.1 million seemed like anything but paradise. With 17 unemployment and one of the fastest growing populations in the world, Mauritius looked as if it were 18 heading for disaster. Yet over the past decade, the island has witnessed an extraordinary economic boom. Mauritius today is a success and one of the few 19 democracies in Africa. 17. (1) chronic 18. (1) irrefutably 19. (1) malfunctioning (2) lingering (2) irresistibly (2) performing (3) characteristic (3) irrationally (3) functioning (4) incessant (4) irretrievably (4) farfetched Turning out concise, cliched paragraphs, with little 20 but at high speed, is a talent that is greatly prized by international news agencies - along with a stomach for filthy coffee and the ability to work round the clock. Nothing will kill off a natural writing gift quite so well as a 21 news-agency training. 20. (1) orthodoxy 21. (1) widespread (2) originality (2) superficial (3) authenticity (3) thoughtful (4) organization (4) thorough DIRECTIONS for questions 22 to 25: For the word given on the top of the table, match the dictionary definitions given in the left hand column (A, B, C, D) with their corresponding usages given in the right hand column (E, F, G, H). Out of the four numbered choices given in the boxes below the table, identify the one that has all definitions and usages correctly matched. 22. MONSTER A. a large, ugly, frightening creature, especially an imaginary one B. someone who is very cruel and evil E. It will be years before we realize what a monster the nuclear bomb can be. F. I’ve got to get home, feed my little monster and put him to bed. C. a small child, especially one who is behaving badly G. What sort of a monster could rape and kill a child? My little niece loves to hear stories of prehistoric monsters. D. a dangerous or threatening problem, especially one that develops gradually H. (1) A B C D H G E F (2) A B C D E F G H (3) A B C D H G F E (4) A B C D E G F H 23. ACKNOWLEDGE A. to admit or accept that something is true or that a situation exists to officially accept that a government, court, leader, etc has legal or official authority to show thanks for, to publicly announce that you are grateful for the help that someone has given you E. The author wishes to acknowledge the assistance and contributions of his family and friends. Please acknowledge the receipt of the money that I am sending you. B. F. C. G. After a lot of deliberation, the people acknowledged him as their undisputed leader. D. to tell someone that you have received his message, letter, package, etc H. The US acknowledged that there had been lapses in the security arrangements. (1) A B C D F G E H (2) A B C D E G H F (3) A B C D H G F E (4) A B C D H G E F 24. MURDER A. the crime of deliberately killing someone E. It is such a beautiful song, but he murdered it. B. to kill someone deliberately F. My mother will murder me if she ever hears this. He murdered his father for money and property. C. to spoil a song, play, etc. completely by performing it very badly D. used to tell somebody that another person will be very angry with him/her G. H. She is charged with the murder of her three young children. (1) A B C D H G E F (2) A B C D G H E F (3) A B C D F G E H (4) A B C D H G F E 25. MANAGE A. to succeed in doing something difficult, especially E. after trying very hard B. to direct or control a business and the people who work in it C. to make time for something, even though you are very busy D. to control the behaviour of a person or animal so that they do what you want them to F. Managing so many restaurants is hard work. I managed to lose about ten kilos in a span of three months. She has a knack of managing stubborn and difficult children. I really want to meet you, could you manage this Saturday evening? G. H. (1) A B C D F E G H (2) A B C D F E H G (3) A B C D G E H F (4) A B C D E F H G DIRECTIONS for questions 26 to 29: In each of the following questions, a part of a sentence is underlined. Beneath each sentence, four different ways of phrasing the underlined part are indicated. Choose the best alternative from among the four. 26. Indian classical music has its roots in the belief that the stature of music should be such that it liberates them from the birth–death– incarnation cycle. (1) it liberates them from the birth–death–incarnation cycle. (2) it liberates one from the birth–death–incarnation cycle. (3) one is liberated from the birth–death–incarnation cycle. (4) it liberalises one from the birth–death–incarnation cycle. 27. The most terrifying fact about the universe is that it is hostile but that it is not indifferent. (1) that it is hostile but that it is not indifferent. (2) that it is not hostile but it is indifferent. (3) that it is hostile but not indifferent. (4) not that it is hostile but that it is indifferent. 28. The courts had come in the way of the nation’s realizing the cherished goals of egalitarianism, and this had prompted Panditji to say that he did not want the courts to be the third chamber. (1) the realization of the nation’s cherished goals of egalitarianism (2) the nation’s realizing the cherished goals of egalitarianism (3) the nation realizing the cherished goals of egalitarianism (4) to realize the nation’s cherished goals of egalitarianism 29. Sachin’s cover drives are more noticeable and elegant than Bradman, though the effect of both was the same. (1) that Bradman, though the effect of both was the same. (2) than Bradman, though both were affective. (3) than Bradman’s, though the effect of both was the same. (4) than the Bradman’s, though the affect of both was the same. DIRECTIONS for questions 30 to 33: Arrange the following sentences to form a coherent paragraph. Choose the right order from among the given choices. 30. A. Nor has corporate America ever been shaken by such an array of scandals. B. It is a fitting metaphor for 2002, the third year of a grisly bear market. C. There has not been a time in recent memory, when the stock market has been so violently rocked, destroying the fortunes of so many. D. Some say Wall Street is a crooked thoroughfare that begins at a churning river and ends in an old graveyard. (1) CABD (2) CADB (3) DBCA (4) DCBA 31. A. The broad roads, the elegant trams and buses and the ubiquitous housing complexes characterise the place. B. The Russian and Uzbeki languages are in vogue here, but Uzbek nationalism, discernable at the airport itself, is the hallmark of changing times. C. A soft touch down at the Tashkent international airport marked the beginning of an encounter with post-Soviet Central Asia. D. Even those Uzbeks with no nostalgia for the old communist order appear to be proud of the public transport system in Tashkent, if not the housing complexes. (1) CBAD (2) CBDA (3) ACBD (4) BDCA 32. A. The national open sky policy and the tremendous growth of passenger and cargo transport have created lucrative openings for pilots, aircraft maintenance engineers, air hostesses and flight pursers. B. Aviation academies in the twin cities now offer an array of new, challenging and potentially rewarding aviation courses to the young and the adventurous. C. The scope in this field is immense and the aviation academies in Hyderabad are one of the best training grounds in the country for the aspirants to take off. D. Aspiring to fly high and above is no longer a pipe dream. (1) CDAB (2) DACB (3) ACBD (4) BACD 33. A. B. C. D. (1) But none of these methods of communication will ever come close to the fond memories that an old letter evokes. Most communications these days, are accomplished over telephone, fax or e-mail. It is a pity that letter writing has become a thing of the past. It is one of the highly regrettable casualties of the modern technological age. BACD (2) ABDC (3) CABD (4) ABCD DIRECTIONS for questions 34 to 37: In each of the questions below, four different ways of writing a sentence are indicated. Choose the best way of writing the sentence. 34. (1) One of the unintended effects of much fee regulation is that those very students whom these policies were designed to help remain condemned to second rate institutions while the rich continue to get opportunities to exit these systems. (2) One of the unintended effects of too much fee regulation is that those very students whom these policies were designed to help remain condemned in second rate institutions while the rich continue to get opportunities to exit these systems. (3) One of the unintended effects of too much fee regulation is that those very students whom these policies were designed to help remain condemned to second rate institutions while the rich continue to get opportunities to exit these systems. (4) One of the unintended effects of much fee regulation is that those very students whom these policies were designed to help remain condemned in second rate institutions while the rich continue to get opportunities to exit these systems. 35. (1) With the foreign exchange reserves at an embarrassingly high $83 billion, with exports growing at a reasonably fast pace and with the current account being in surplus for the second year, the World Bank’s critical observations on the Indian economy seem unduly pessimistic. (2) With the foreign exchange reserve at an embarrassingly high $83 billion, with exports growing at a reasonably fast pace and with the current account being in surplus for the second year, the World Bank’s critical observations on the Indian economy seem unduly pessimistic. (3) With the foreign exchange reserves at an embarrassingly high $83 billion, with exports reasonably growing at a fast pace and with the current account being in surplus for the second year, the World Bank’s critical observations on the Indian economy seem unduly pessimistic. (4) With the foreign exchange reserve at an embarrassingly high $83 billion, with exports reasonably growing at a fast pace and with the current account being in surplus for the second year, the World Bank’s critical observations on the Indian economy seem unduly pessimistic. 36. (1) The thirteen long years when the state was convulsed into violent conflict, took its toll on the life and academic performance of thousands of students. (2) The thirteen long years when the state was convulsed in violent conflict, took its toll on the life and academic performance of thousands of students. (3) The thirteen long years when the state was convulsed into violent conflict took their toll on the life and academic performance of thousands of students. (4) The thirteen long years when the state was convulsed in violent conflict took their toll on the life and academic performance of thousands of students. 37. (1) Education is expensive and while strict fee regulation may appear to be in the interest of social justice, but it ends up diminishing both the supply as well as the quality of education. (2) Education is expensive and while strict fee regulation may appear to be in the interest of social justice, it ends up diminishing both the supply and the quality of education. (3) Education is expensive and while strict fee regulation may appear to be in the interest of social justice, but it ends up diminishing both the supply and the quality of education. (4) Education is expensive and while strict fee regulation may appear to be in the interest of social justice, it ends up diminishing both the supply as well as the quality of education. DIRECTIONS for questions 38 to 41: Each pair of capitalized words given below is followed by four pairs of words. Choose the pair which exhibits a relationship similar to that expressed in the capitalized pair. 38. INCIPIENT : FLEDGLING : : (1) Young : Old (3) Permutation : Combination 39. FILLY : COLT : : (1) Boy : Girl (2) Gerontology : Pediatrics (4) Mendacious : Deceitful (2) Grist : Mill (3) Sow : Pig (4) Child : Adult 40. UXORICIDE : WIFE : : (1) Filicide : Friend (2) Genocide : Germs 41. ENCOMIUM : PANEGYRIC : : (1) Urbane : Sophisticated (3) Insult : Honour (3) Sororicide : Sister (4) Homicide : Self (2) Sorrow : Dirge (4) Acerbity : Equanimity DIRECTIONS for questions 42 to 44: In each of the following questions, a capitalized pair of words if given followed by four pairs of numbered words. Three of the numbered pairs exhibit the same relationship between the words as the capitalized pair of words. Identify the numbered pair that does not exhibit the same relationship as the capitalized pair and mark its number as your answer. 42. DENUNCIATION : CONDEMNATION : : (1) Censure : Criticism (3) Denigration : Disparagement 43. CONJECTURE : GUESS : : (1) Prediction : Forecast (3) Suspicion : Doubt 44. SKINFLINT : MAGNANIMITY : : (1) Altruist : Compassion (3) Quisling : Patriotism (2) Vituperation : Vilification (4) Cornucopia : Paucity (2) Opinion : Ideal (4) Dogma : Principle (2) Profligate : Morality (4) Rookie : Experience DIRECTIONS for question 45: Given below is a paragraph followed by four alternative ways of summarising the same. Choose the option that best captures the essence of the paragraph. 45. It goes without saying that there are usually more options open to migrants than to the marginalised indigenous population in search of their place in society, mainly because in the migrants’ case the voluntary aspect of their resettlement undoubtedly plays some role. In contrast, the lack of choice in the case of indigenous population influences the shaping of relationships, for example, between the white population of Australia and the Australian Aboriginal people. The hurt is deep and the distrust widespread. Moreover, both played a mobilising role in raising the self-consciousness and self-organisation of Aboriginal people and cultural closure has functioned here as one of the liberating instruments of these processes. The two histories of Australia were “written” in parallel, they did not even confront but rather ignored each other. The programme of reconciliation is an attempt to confront the “other” history and to learn from it, but the learning is slow and new hurts are often created. (A) Marginalisation of indigenous people, as in the case of Australian Aborigines, spins off distrust and hurts that are unending. Marginalisation is instrumental in shaping the relationships between the settler and the marginalised. Reconciliation becomes difficult as the reality is too stark. (B) Migrants and the marginalised differ in the respect that the latter lack choice in resettlement. This leads to a garbled version of history which makes it difficult for anyone to gain an understanding of what actually happened. (C) Marginalised people are those who are uprooted from their own society and try hard to be accommodated in the changed society and to be treated as equals. This is not possible because they have a deep distrust of the colonisers and the harm inflicted on them is unforgettable, as seen in the relationship between the Australian whites and the Aborigines. (D) The Australian Aborigines are examples of the oppressed and downtrodden. Their attempts to eke out an existence in a society where they are marginalised are not fruitful as they have a deep distrust and fear of the Australian whites and keep getting offended over and over, making reconciliation impossible. (1) A (2) B (3) C (4) D DIRECTIONS for questions 46 to 49: Identify the incorrect sentence or sentences. 46. A. B. C. D. (1) 47. A. B. C. D. (1) 48. A. B. C. D. (1) In the sixteenth century, India’s wealth sustained more than a hundred million people. India’s agriculture was not in anyway backward than those of western Europe. Its productivity too was comparative. Even subsistence-oriented peasant got a good return. Only A (2) A and B (3) B, C, and D (4) A, B, C, and D The conventional way to introduce a product is through advertising. But Grand Met chose a different route. It opened several posh ice cream parlour in affluent locations. It was designed to contrast the more traditional ice cream parlours in the US. A and B (2) C and D (3) Only A His father was a sucessful merchant. But the youth had no learning to such a career. Spinoza preferred to spend his time in the synagogue. He absorbed religion and history of his people. Only B (2) Only C (3) A and C (4) Only D (4) B and D 49. A. B. C. D. (1) At one time colleges were considered luxuries. They were designed to the male of the leisure class. Today universities are numerous. Anyone who wants can become a scholar. B and D (2) B and C (3) A and B (4) A and C DIRECTIONS for questions 50 to 53: Each question has four items. Select the item that does not belong to the group. 50. (1) Sobbing (2) Hatred (3) Jealousy (4) Kindness 51. (1) Motorcycles are fast. (3) Only rich people buy motorcycles. 52. (1) He was heading North. (3) He was heading West and turned left. 53. (1) Thud (2) Hiss (2) Motorcycle fuel is costly. (4) Motorcycles consume more fuel. (2) He was heading South and turned back. (4) He was heading East and turned left. (3) Click (4) Shout DIRECTIONS for questions 54 and 55 : The sentences given in each question, when properly sequenced form a coherent paragraph. The first and last sentences are 1 and 6 respectively, and the four in between are labelled A, B, C and D. Choose the most logical order of these four sentences from among the four given choices to construct a coherent paragraph along with sentences 1 and 6. 54. 1. IFC’s study involved interviews with almost seventy JVs in six developing countries: Argentina, Brazil, India, Mexico, the Philippines and Turkey. A. These countries represent a fairly wide spectrum of income levels, but they are similar in the sense that all are home to a variety of JVs of the type sought for the study. B. Sometimes these JVs have been motivated primarily by government regulations that prevented foreign companies from investing alone. C. Sometimes other motivations were primary. D. In every case, however, it was IFC’s purpose to investigate in some detail how these JVs came together, what difficulties arose in negotiating the agreements and what problems arose during implementation and operation of the joint venture. 6. Although IFC attempted to assess the success or failure, as well as the future, of included JVs, this aspect of the study was not a major goal. (1) DBAC (2) ABCD (3) BACD (4) DABC 55. 1. Men have cleared away forests to make fields for growing crops. A. They have moved mountains to make room for roads and cities, they have built huge dams across rivers to turn valleys into lakes, and have built dykes to push back the sea and create more dry land to live on. B. When the Aswan Dam was built across the River Nile in Egypt, it was meant to help the farmers by giving them water when they needed. C. Once everyone cheered at the progress that man made in changing his environment like this, but now many people are worried by the problems that such changes can bring. D. Unfortunately, people did not realize that much of the nourishing food for plants carried by the river would be trapped by the dam, so the farmer’s crops would suffer. 6. Also, hundreds of kilometres away at the mouth of the river Nile, less fresh water pours into the Mediterranean Sea, thereby making the sea water more salty and decreasing the availability of fish, as a result people who catch fish for their living will suffer drastically. (1) CBAD (2) DBAC (3) BDCA (4) ACBD ...
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This note was uploaded on 01/27/2010 for the course EE 100 taught by Professor Abc during the Spring '10 term at Punjab Engineering College.

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