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Fertilization - SPERMATOZOA IN THE FEMALE TRACT(Transport...

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SPERMATOZOA IN THE FEMALE TRACT (Transport, capacitation, and Fertilization) Chapter 12; Pathway to pregnancy and Parturition AVS 222 (Instructor Dr. Amin Ahmadzadeh) I. SPERM IN THE FEMALE TRACT (Figure 12-1) Within the female tract spermatozoa are lost by: A. Phagocytosis by neutrophils (WBC): the uterus and vagina (Figure 12-2) - High estradiol increases the # of WBC - Neutrophils in the mucosa of the vagina and uterus attack foreign microorganisms - Spermatozoa are foreign to the female and thus some sperms are killed by neutrophils B. Physical barrier including the cervix. (Figures 12-3, 12-6) Cervix is a Physical barrier to sperm transport it serves several function including: - Removal of non-motile sperm - Removal of some abnormal sperms C . Retrograde transport In the cow cervix two type of mucus: (Figure 12-5) 1 ) Sialomucin: low viscosity and helps forward movement 2) Sulfomucin: high viscosity and washes sperm out! Low viscosity environment in the valley of the cervix creates " privileged pathway " for healthy spermatozoa II. SPERMATOZOA TRANSPORT A. Rapid transport : - Occurs within a few minutes after copulation and sperm can be found in the oviduct - But, the majority of the spermatozoa arriving the oviduct are not viable B . Sustained transport : Spermatozoa are transported deep into the oviduct, through the utero-tubal junction Delivers more sustained and uniform spermatozoa to the ampulla Nevertheless, high proportions of spermatozoa deposited in the female tract are lost by retrograde transport . For example, in artificial insemination of cows, > 60% of sperms are lost to the exterior of the tract by 12 hr after insemination. (Figure 12-3) II. SPERM CAPACITATION
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