VCE 12.docx - 1 A pulmonary embolism(PE is a collection of...

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1.A pulmonary embolism (PE) is a collection of particulate matter (solids, liquids, or air) that enters venous circulation and lodges in the pulmonary vessels. Large emboli obstruct pulmonary blood flow, leading to reduced oxygenation of the whole body, pulmonary tissue hypoxia, and potential death.2.Most often occurs when a blood clot from a venous thromboembolism (VTE), especially a deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in a vein in the legs or the pelvis, breaks off and travels through the vena cava into the right side of the heart.3.Everything except hereditary4.Patient is sitting up, leaning forward with hands on chest. Patient is complaining of chest pain and shortness of breath. Color ashen. Tachypneic, diaphoretic. Family worried.5.Assess patient by checking vital signs and auscultating heart and lung sounds. Apply oxygen. Call provider.6.No, the nurse should not have left the patient’s bedside because the patient was in acute respiratory distress and was at risk for cardiopulmonary arrest. The nurse should have called for help and stayed with the patient and the family. Once the oxygen was applied, the nurse should have completed a focused assessment and called the provider, not waited until the patient was feeling a little better. This is an acute, emergency situation that requires critical thinking and fast action.7.Sudden onset of dyspneaChest painApprehension, restlessnessFeeling of impending doomTachypnea8.Cough, hemoptysis, crackles, pleural friction rub, tachycardia, S3or S4heart sound, diaphoresis, low-grade fever, petechiae over chest and axillae, decreased arterial oxygenation saturation. The nurse should also assess for cardiac manifestations, such as distended neck veins, syncope, cyanosis and hypotension. It is important to remember that many patients with Pulmonary Embolism do not have classic symptoms.

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