Human Sexuality

Human Sexuality - Human Sexuality Lecture 1 Outline I...

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Human Sexuality Lecture 1 Outline I. Reproduction is a cellular event A. Why are cells important? 1. Cells are the functional and structural units of living organisms 2. The activity of an organism is dependent on both the individual and collective activity of the cells that comprise that organism 3. Subcellular structures determine the biochemical activities of cells 4. Continuity of life has a cellular basis II. Most cells have the same basic components A. Major parts 1. Plasma membrane 2. Cytoplasm a. Organelles b. Cytosol i. Fluid suspending other components c. Inclusions i. Non-functioning chemicals substances that may be unique to a given cell type 3. Nucleus—control center for cellular function a. Contains genetic material i. DNA b. Nuclear membrane c. Nucleoli i. Ribosome assembly d. Chromatin i. DNA + histone e. Chromosomes i. Only present during cell division ii. Condensed chromatin B. Organelles 1. Mitochondria—transduce energy into useable cellular work 2. Ribosomes—site of protein synthesis 3. Endomembrane System—interactive system of membranes a. Nuclear envelope b. Endoplasmic reticulum—network of membranous tubules and sacs (cisternae) within the cytoplasm c. Golgi apparatus—modifies, concentrates and packages rough ER products d. Lysosomes—digestive compartments; membranous sac containing hydrolytic enzymes e. Vacuoles III. Cells have a life cycle
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A. Characteristics of the cell cycle 1. The cell cycle includes all events from a cell’s formation until it divides 2. The cell cycle includes two major periods a. Interphase b. Cell division i. Mitosis ii. Meiosis B. Interphase 1. Cell formation until cell division begins 2. Most of the cell cycle is interphase a. Metabolism and growth b. Preparation for division 3. Subphases a. G1: growth phase with little cell division related activities i. Can last minutes to years (G0) b. S: synthetic phase i. DNA replicates c. G2: brief period of growth where enzymes and other proteins necessary for division are synthesized i. Very brief IV. What is DNA? A. DNA is a type of nucleic acid 1. Nucleic acids are complex molecules that form the genetic code a. Nucleic acid sequences code for individual genes b. Genes are an organisms heritable unit i. Information passed between generations B. Types of nucleic acids: 1. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) a. Makes up genes that indirectly direct protein synthesis b. Contain information for its own replication c. Contains coded information that programs all cell activity d. Replicated and passed to next generation e. Found primarily in the nucleus 2. Ribonucleic acid (RNA) a. Functions in the synthesis of proteins coded for by DNA b. Messenger RNA (mRNA) carries encoded genetic message from the nucleus to the cytoplasm V. Information in the nucleus controls events in the rest of the cell A. Information flow DNA RNA Protein
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1. In the nucleus, genetic message is transcribed from DNA into mRNA 2. mRNA moves into the cytoplasm 3.
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This note was uploaded on 04/03/2008 for the course COMM 101 taught by Professor Lieberman during the Spring '07 term at Rutgers.

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Human Sexuality - Human Sexuality Lecture 1 Outline I...

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