l 1 - Helpful Hints for Doing Well Labs and Lectures...

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Unformatted text preview: Helpful Hints for Doing Well: Labs and Lectures compliment each other. Labs Labs will include Labs additional information not in lecture! READ TEXT BEFORE LECTURE AND LAB! OUTLINE YOUR LECTURE NOTES EACH EVENING Good review of material Identify most important information Easy guide for studying for exams When taking notes in class: Do not write down every word Information is color coded by its importance MOST IMPORTANT INFORMATION Will be MOST underlined! underlined! This course will focus on the This Metazoa - multicellular life Metazoa multicellular life We will be talking about Grades of Construction Body Architecture Development Origins and Diversity Morphological, Molecular Phylogenetics Morphological, Phylogenetics Fossil Evidence Ediacaria Cambrian Explosion Burgess Shale Fauna Classification = Taxonomy Classification Systematics = Study of Systematics Study Evolutionary Relationships Categories = levels of classification Using the Linnean hierarchy Phylum Class Order Family Genus species TAXON (Pl. = TAXA) = set of real organisms that fill a category set Systematics determines evolutionary relationships among taxa. MONOPHYLETIC Groups = members derived from a single common ancestor members A taxon is assumed to be a monophyletic group CLADE: entire portion of a phylogeny descended from a single ancestor Therefore is a single monophyletic group, but not necessarily a taxon Examples of possible cladograms of the Metazoa Examples cladograms of Metazoa Note that at any branch point the branches can be flipped (arbitrary which is up and which is down) ALL cladograms and phylogenies are HYPOTHESES about ALL and evolutionary relationships!!! 1 Number of Tissue Layers Grades of Construction of Animals Unicellular Unicellular Protozoa - Lab this week Protozoa Diploblastic - 2 layers Ectoderm (outside) Endoderm (inside) Cellular Grade - Specialization of cell types (e.g., Porifera) Tissue Grade - Cells organized into tissues (e.g., Cnidaria) Triploblastic - 3 layers Ectoderm (outside) Mesoderm (middle) Endoderm (inside) Organ Grade - Tissues organized into organs (most phyla) Body Orientation and Symmetry Radial Symmetry = Equal in all directions around Oral-Aboral axis around Oral ORAL - side with mouth ORAL side with entry into gut system ABORAL - OPPOSITE mouth Bilateral Symmetry Anterior = end usually leading direction of end leading direction movement movement concentration of sensory concentration sensory and nervous structures and nervous Posterior = opposite anterior opposite Ventral = side with mouth along A-P side mouth axis Dorsal = side opposite ventral along side opposite A-P axis 2 Bilateral Symmetry Left and Right symmetry along Anterior - Posterior axis Anterior and Mid Ventral - Dorsal plane Mid Body Cavities: Acoelomate - no body cavity Pseudocoelomate - cavity, but not completely cavity, not lined with mesoderm lined mesoderm Coelomate - true coelom = completely lined true completely by mesoderm = Peritoneum by mesoderm Peritoneum Cephalization = differentiation of a head Acoelomate Pseudocoelomate Coelomate 3 ...
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