_EOCT Test Review Material Unit 1 & 2 GSE.docx - US History EOCT Test Review Material Unit 1 GSE 1 2 GSE 1 SSUSH1 Compare and Contrast the

_EOCT Test Review Material Unit 1 & 2 GSE.docx - US History...

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US History EOCT Test Review Material Unit 1- GSE 1 & 2 GSE 1 SSUSH1- Compare and Contrast the development of English settlement and colonization during the 17 th century. The settlement of permanent English colonies in North America, beginning with Jamestown in 1607, further cemented the development of an already emerging and complex Atlantic World. The convergence of North American, South American, European, and African peoples in the western hemisphere was a complicated mix of conquest, trade, and religious mission. Spanish, French, and English colonies existed simultaneously in North America, each with different objectives and different approaches to the American Indians they encountered. Likewise, differences among the thirteen English colonies existed in terms of their founding purposes, interaction with American Indians, and economic development. England’s various North American colonies were, however, united under their mother country’s strong focus on extracting colonial resources through mercantilism and trans-Atlantic trade even though this objective did not always align with the colonists’ growing desire for economic, religious, and political autonomy. SSUSH1 – Compare and Contrast the development of English settlement and colonization during the 17th century. a. Investigate how mercantilism and trans-Atlantic trade led to the development of colonies. Things to Know about Mercantilism and the Trans-Atlantic Trade 1. Although many English colonists came to North America searching for religious or political opportunity, it was economic opportunity that fueled the ambition of other English colonists, as well as, their mother country. Investors sought financial returns for their colonial ventures. England sought to extract resources from North America in order to compete with their European rivals for wealth and power. By the 1650s, England was heavily entrenched in trans-Atlantic trade based on mercantilism. [SSUSH 1a] 2. Mercantilism is an economic theory based on reducing a country’s imports while expanding its exports in order to maximize wealth. In the highly competitive European world of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, wealth equated to power. Thus, mercantilism inspired European governments, including England, to promote American colonies as sources of raw materials not readily available in the mother country. Some of the most important resources England plucked from its colonies included lumber, sugar, wool, tobacco, rice, and indigo. These raw materials were then used in England to 1
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produce manufactured goods for export to other European countries and back to the colonists in North America. [SSUSH 1a] 3. A favorable trade balance resulted for England in the colonial arrangement. Raw materials that were scarce in England were acquired from their colonial possessions.
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