Unformatted text preview: Presentation Package for Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e Section V: Concept 14 Nutrition The amount and kinds of food you eat affect your health and wellness. Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e 1 MyPyramid.gov Click icon for info on Lab 14b More personalized, behavioral approach to nutrition. Webbased assessment tool called MyPyramid Tracker was also released to help consumers monitor their diet and activity behaviors. Click here to view MyPyramid Also emphasizes the Animation importance of physical http://www.mypyramid.gov/global_nav/media_animationpresentation_en activity.
Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e Concepts 2 Guidelines for Healthy Eating
Make half your grains whole. Vary your veggies. Focus on fruits. Know your fats. Get your calciumrich foods. Go lean with protein. Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e Concepts 3 Does the Healthy Eating Pyramid more effectively capture the elements of a healthy diet? See the Harvard Nutrition website
Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e Concepts 4 Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e Concepts 5 Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e Concepts 6 Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e Concepts 7 General Nutrition Concepts Influences of Nutrition Health Appearance Behavior Mood
See Web141 for info on general nutrition guidelines AND links to the 2005 Dietary Guidelines Role of Nutrients in Diet Provide energy Growth and development
Concepts of Physical Fitness Regulate metabolism 14e Concepts 8 Classes of Nutrients Carbohydrates Proteins Fats Vitamins Minerals Water Subsequent slides will provide basic information about each nutrient. Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e Concepts 9 Types of Carbohydrates Simple (2 types) Complex Soda, candy, sweets, fruit Individual glucose, sucrose, or fructose molecules Increase blood sugar Promote fat deposition Pasta, rice, breads, potatoes Contribute nutrients and fiber Chains of glucose molecules
Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e Concepts 10 Trends in Carbohydrate Consumption
C A R PB EO RH CY ED NR TA T E S 100 35% 80 60 40 20 0 65% 50% 45% 50% 55% SIMPLE COMPLEX COMPLEX 1910 1950 1980
Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e Concepts See Web14-4 for distinctions between complex and simple. 11 Low Carb Mania (What is the basis?) Click icon for info on fiber Proponents of low carb diets blame carbohydrates on the obesity epidemic, but this is not well supported by research. The quality of carbohydrates is the real issue and it is still wise to consume quality whole grains with adequate fiber. Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e Concepts 12 Eat at least 3 ounces of wholegrain cereals, breads, crackers, rice, or pasta every day. Look to see that grains such as wheat, rice, oats, and corn are referred to as “whole” in the list of ingredients. Eat more dark green vegetables, such as broccoli, kale, and other dark, leafy greens; orange veggies, such as carrots, sweet potatoes, pumpkin, and winter squash; and beans and peas, such as pinto beans, kidney beans, black beans, garbanzo beans, split peas, and lentils. Eat a variety of fruits—whether fresh, frozen, canned, or dried—rather than fruit juice for most of your fruit choices. Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e Concepts 13 Carbohydrate Recommendations Types of Fats Saturated Unsaturated (poly or mono) Animal sources Solid at room temperature Click icon for info on fat content of oils Vegetable sources Liquid at room temperature HHHHH HHHH HHHHO HC-C-C-C-C-C=C-C-C-C=C-C-C-C-C-C-OH HC-C-C-C-C-C=C-C-C-C=C-C-C-C-C-C-OH HHHHH HH HHH
Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e Concepts Web1406 Web1407
14 Types of Fats continued Click icon for info on hydrogenation process The hydrogenation process used to convert oils into solids produce trans fat, which is just as harmful as saturated fats, if not more so. Trans fats are known to cause increases in LDL cholesterol and have been shown to contribute to the buildup of atherosclerotic plaque.
Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e Concepts 15 Fat Substitutes Olestra Simplesse Benecol Take Control What are the dietary implications of these new food products?
Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e Concepts 16 Dietary Fat Recommendations Recommendations for Fat Consumption Ways to Decrease Intake of Fat Less than 10% of calories in diet from saturated fat Total dietary fat between 2035% of calories Substitute lean meat, fish, poultry, nonfat milk, and other lowfat dairy products for highfat foods Reduce fried foods & foods high in cholesterol
Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e Concepts 17 Types of Protein Sources of Protein Animal (complete) meats, dairy Vegetable (incomplete) beans, nuts, legumes, grains Types of Amino Acids Amino acids linked together Nonessential (11) – can be made by body Essential (9) – must be obtained from diet
Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e Concepts Complete proteins contain all of the essential amino 18 Protein Requirements RDA average = .8 g/kg/day RDA athlete = 1.21.6 g/kg/day High levels of protein intake above 2 g/kg/day can be harmful to the body
Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e Concepts 19 Protein Guidelines
Consume at least 2 servings/day of lean meat, fish, poultry, and dairy products or adequate combination of foods, such as beans, nuts, grains, and rice. Dietary supplements of protein, such as tablets and powders, are NOT recommended. Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e Concepts 20 Dietary Recommendations (2 different sets)
Lab 14a Lab Questions:
1. Why do the guidelines differ? CHO PRO U.S.D.A.
PRO (10-15%) FAT (30%) CHO (55-60%) FAT 2. What is a “healthy diet”? 3. How do you calculate these percentages?
calorie calculations PRO CHO Institute of Institute of Medicine
PRO (10-35%) FAT (20-35%) CHO (45-65%)
21 FAT Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e Concepts Vitamins
Organic substances that regulate numerous and diverse physiological processes in the body Do not contain calories Two types Fat soluble Water soluble Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e Concepts 22 Vitamin Guidelines Click for info on “antioxidants” A balanced diet containing recommended servings of carbohydrates, fats and proteins will meet the RDA standards. Extra servings of green and yellow vegetables may be beneficial. Extra consumption of citrus and other fruits may be beneficial.
Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e Concepts 23 Vitamin Supplementation?
Not necessary if diet is healthy Multivitamins are safe (100% RDA) Not all vitamins are “pure” Can be toxic at high doses Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e Concepts 24 Minerals
Inorganic elements found in food that are essential to life processes About 25 are essential Classified as major or trace minerals RDA’s have only been determined for 7 minerals Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e Concepts 25 Click for more info on minerals Mineral Guidelines A diet containing recommended servings of carbohydrates, fats and proteins will meet the RDA standards Extra servings of green andyellow vegetables may be beneficial Dietary supplementation of Calcium is beneficial for postmenopausal women Salt should be limited in the diet Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e Concepts 26 Populations Who May Benefit from Supplementation
Pregnant/lactating women Alcoholics Elderly Women with severe menstrual losses Individuals on VLCD’s Strict vegetarians Individuals taking medications or with diseases which inhibit nutrient absorption Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e Concepts 27 Water Vital to life Drink at least 8 glasses a day Coffee, tea, and soft drinks should not be substituted for sources of key nutrients, such as lowfat milk, fruit juices, or foods rich in calcium. Limit daily servings of beverages containing caffeine to no more than three. Limit sugared soft drinks; they contain empty calories. If you choose to drink alcohol, do so in moderation.
Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e Concepts 28 Click for more info on water Sound Eating Practices
Consistency (with variety) is a good general rule of nutrition. Moderation Minimize reliance on fast foods Minimize your consumption of overly processed foods and foods high in saturated fat or hydrogenated fats. Healthy snacks Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e Concepts 29 Complex carbohydrates should constitute as much as 70% of total caloric intake. A higher amount of protein is generally recommended for active individuals (1.2 g/kg of body weight) because some protein is used as an energy source during exercise. Nutrition & Physical Performance Carbohydrate loading and carbohydrate replacement during exercise can enhance sustained aerobic performances.
Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e Concepts Protein levels above 15% of the diet are typically not necessary. 30 Nutrition Quackery
Ergogenic aids Dietary Supplements Health and Education Act (1994) Responsible for an explosion in the sales of products that have not been proven to be effective. Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e Concepts 31 Nutrition: Summary
Nutrition is important to health and wellness. Moderation and variety are recommended. Some individuals may have additional nutritional needs based on activity level, pregnancy, etc. Fruits and veggies are critical!! Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e Concepts 32 Web Resources
Online Learning Center On the Web” pages for Concept Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e Concepts 33 Supplemental Graphics
Lab Information calculations Graphics on Obesity Trends
Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e 34 Detail on BMI Lab 14a Information
Nutrition Analysis Purpose: Compare quality of “favorite diet” with your ideal “healthy diet” Procedure: Select foods from food list (Appendix D or other diet tables) and calculate calories from carbohydrates, fats and proteins.
Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e Concepts 35 Lab 14a Information
Nutrition Analysis cont.
Return to presentation Protein 350 Fat 800 Carbohydrate 1400 Totals 2550 Making calorie Calories % of Total Calories % of Total Calories calculations 13.7 31.4 54.9 100.0 Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e Concepts Divide the calories by the total to get the percentage
36 Lab 14b Information
Return to presentation Selecting Nutritious Foods Purpose: Evaluate the nutritional quality of your diet Procedure: Record foods consumed for two days on the Daily Diet Record. Calculate calorie intake from list in Appendix C Implications: Rate the quality Click icon to of the diet according to the see other food tables Rating Scale.
Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e Concepts 37 Fiber Soluble decreases cholesterol levels Insoluble reduces risk of colon cancer found in oat bran, fruits and veggies found in wheat bran and grains Recommendation: 2540g per day Are you getting enough?
Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e Concepts 38 Ways to Get More Fiber
Eat more fruits and vegetables Eat whole grain foods Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e Concepts 39 A Grain of Wheat
Return to presentation BRAN - B vitamins vitamins - minerals minerals - dietary fiber dietary ENDOSPERM
- starch starch - protein protein - some iron and some B vitamins vitamins GERM GERM - essential fats essential - minerals minerals - vitamins vitamins (B's , E and folacin) (B's
Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e Concepts 40 Composition of Oils (%)
Return to presentation Type safflower sunflower corn soybean sesame peanut palm olive canola Sat 9 10 13 14 14 17 49 14 7 Poly Mono
75 66 59 58 42 32 9 8 35 16 24 28 28 44 51 42 78 58 Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e Concepts 41 Hydrogenation Process
Return to presentation Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e Concepts 42 Fat Soluble Vitamins
Consist of Vitamins A, D, E, and K Absorbed at the small intestine in the presence of bile (a fatty substance) Overdoses can be toxic (A and D) Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e Concepts 43 Water Soluble Vitamins
Consist of B complex and vitamin C Excesses will be excreted in the urine, however, B6 and Niacin can be toxic when ingested in unusually large amounts Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e Concepts 44 Water Soluble Vitamins Return to presentation B1 (thiamine) B2 (riboflavin) B6 (pyridoxine) B12 (cobalamin) Niacin (nicotinic acid) Pantothenic Acid Folic Acid (folacin) Biotin C
Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e Concepts 45 Antioxidant AllStars Broccoli Cantaloupe Carrot Kale Mango Pumpkin Red Pepper Spinach Strawberries Sweet potato
Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e Concepts 46 Return to presentation Minerals with established RDA guidelines Calcium Phosphorus Iodine Iron Magnesium Zinc Selenium Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e Concepts 47 Calcium
Important for preventing osteoporosis RDA = 8001000 mg/day Found in dairy products and vegetables Return to presentation High protein diets leach calcium from bones and promote osteoporosis
Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e Concepts 48 Iron Return to presentation Important component of hemoglobin Iron deficiency is known as anemia
(Symptoms: shortness of breath, fatigue) Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e Concepts 49 Functions of Water Return to presentation Comprises about 60% of body weight Chief component of blood plasma Aids in temperature regulation Lubricates joints Shock absorber in eyes, spinal cord, and amniotic sac (during pregnancy) Active participant in many chemical reactions
Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e Concepts 50 Caloric Content of Foods
Carbohydrates Protein Fats Alcohol 4 cal/g 4 cal/g 9 cal/g 7 cal/g Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e Concepts 51 Calorie Calculation (Example) Heather consumes 2000 calories per day and wishes to obtain 20% of her calories from fat: 2000 calories x 20% = 400 calories from fat per day 400 calories from fat = 44 grams of fat/day
Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e Concepts 52 What is Baloney?
80% "fat free” 80% 52 calories / slice 52 4 grams fat / slice grams Calories = 4 g/slice X 9 cal/g = 36 calories from fat from Percent of calories = 36 cal / 52 cal total = calories 36 from fat from
Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e Concepts 69% 69%
53 What about Sliced Turkey?
Return to presentation 98% "fat free” 98% 30 calories / slice 30 1 gram fat / slice gram Calories = 1 g/slice X 9 cal/g = 9 calories from fat from Percent of calories = 9 cal / 30 cal total = calories cal from fat from
Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e Concepts 30% 30%
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