20080910 - Imperial power made effective through...

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Tian xia - China saw itself as the only civilization under heaven. It wasn't a nation until it met other nations. Middle kingdom. China rejected early Jesuit maps showing the West as the center. China viewed itself as superior and took the position even in foreign affairs, viewing all others as barbarian. Racist? Rejection of equality. hierarchy view of the international system. Emperor viewed as the father of the nation, heavenly being on earth (son of heaven). Mandate of heaven, divine right. Conditional! Ge ming - severing of the mandate. Were the Emperor to deviate from these Confucian principles, the people have a right to rebellion. Even extends to the right to the murder of a king.
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Unformatted text preview: Imperial power made effective through sophisticated bureaucracy. Initially recruited from aristocracts but then extended to the masses through basis of merit. One of the earliest meritocracy. Examinations. Literal population. 30% adult literacy from Ming dynasty period. The level for the examinations was significantly higher. No age limitations although sex was restricted to males. Examinations take place continuously. Government postings were correlated with these examination results. Scholars study throughout their lifes. Chen Duxia - Founding general secretary, leading figure of may 4th....
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