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20080924 - Cyclical change Sinocentric complacency 2...

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Cyclical change. Sinocentric complacency. 2 conflicting ideologies, inward and outward looking. China stagnated on change in the 19th century. Revolutionary change induced by foreign gunboats. Western challenge led to Chinese response. Chinese, unlike Japan, did not advance/adapt/modernise accordingly. Defeated by Japan in 1895. Unbroken history of defeat, foreign powers imposed and sought concessions from China. Linear change/process of modernisation in the world whereas China was stuck in a cyclical loop of stagnation. China faced decline of a dynasty and what some feel, a decline of a civilisation. Situation demanded reform. China exhausted all growth in that state of imperial rule, reached a plateau, and risked getting destroyed without reform. Duo crisis of domestic decay and foreign pressure. Fairbanks vs Paul Cohen, theory. Rebellion, Reform, Reaction. Rebellion - Taiping, Nian, Muslim rebellions. Reform - Tongzhi restoration. Self strengthening reforms. Hundred Days reform 1898. Post Boxer reforms 1901-1909.
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