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mcb450-7f09 - Chapter 7 Carbohydrates and the Glyconjugates...

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Chapter 7 Carbohydrates and the Glyconjugates of Cell Surfaces Mintel Office Hours – Noyes 208 Today – 1:45 – 3:00 PM
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Carbohydrates Literal meaning of name. Empirical formula can be written C n ∙(H 2 O) n
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Groups of Carbohydrates Monosaccharides – simple sugars Oligosaccharides (“a few sugars”) Polysaccharides Oligosaccharides and polysaccharides are polymers formed from sugars by the elimination of water. Oligosaccharides are usually covalently joined to other molecules. Polysaccharides may be huge in size.
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Chirality Sugars typically are chiral compounds. The D and L systems are in widespread use in naming sugars. D and L refer to the absolute configuration of D- and L-glyceraldehyde. Most oxdized C atom is up in the projection formula and CH 2 OH is down. OH on left is L.
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Fig. 7-1, p. 182
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Classification of Sugars Aldoses Have free aldehyde group Ketoses Have keto group In classifying sugars as D or L, one looks at the configuration of the highest numbered asymmetric carbon atom.
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Fig. 7-2, p. 182 Aldoses These are all reducing sugars because they have a free aldehyde group in the open chain form. You should know passively the structures shaded in blue.
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Fig. 7-3, p. 183 Ketoses Fructose is a reducing sugar even though it lacks an aldehyde group because, in alkaline solutions, it is in equilibrium with glucose.
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Fig. 7-4, p. 184 Enantiomers of Fructose
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Ring Structures In solution sugars cyclize to form ring structures. Formation of ring structures introduces an additional asymmetric C atom into a sugar. The two new forms are termed anomers .
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Fig. 7-5a, p. 185 Anomers of Glucose
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Haworth Projection Formulas Commonly used projection formulas are shown on the next slides. You should be able to recognize common sugars in either their open-chain or their ring forms.
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Fig. 7-6a, p. 186 Haworth Projection for Fructose
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Fig. 7-7, p. 186 Haworth Projections for Clucose, Ribose
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Fig. 7-7a, p. 186 Haworth Projections for Glucose Most commonly used
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Fig. 7-7b, p. 186 Haworth Projection for Ribose Most commonly used
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Chair and Boat Forms A more accurate depiction of the structure of sugars in solution.
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