mcb450-3f09 - Lecture 3 Thermodynamics of Biological...

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Lecture 3 Thermodynamics of Biological Systems Office Hours: Today, 1:45-3:00 Noyes 208
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Fig. 3-CO, p. 48
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Systems Isolated – No exchange of matter or energy with the surroundings. Closed – Exchanges energy, but not matter, with the surroundings. Open – Exchanges energy and matter with the surroundings. Living organisms are open systems.
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Fig. 3-1a, p. 49
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Fig. 3-1b, p. 49
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Fig. 3-1c, p. 49
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Criterion of Spontaneity Does a process proceed spontaneously as written, does it go in the opposite direction, or does it go nowhere? For some time it was thought that heat provided a criterion of spontaneity Heat fails, however, as demonstrated by the dissolution of ammonium nitrate in water.
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Laws of Thermodynamics First Law The energy of the universe is constant. E = q – w where E = change in internal energy; q = heat absorbed by the system; w = work done by the system (Note: Your book defines w as the work done on the system. By that convention, E = q + w.) Shortcoming: Internal energy fails as a criterion of spontaneity; example: ice-water transition
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Laws of Thermodynamics Second Law The entropy of the universe increases. "Die Energie der Welt ist konstant. Die Entropie der Welt strebt einem maximum zu." (The energy of the universe is constant. The entropy of the universe strives toward a maximum.) (Rudolf Clausius, the German physical chemist who developed the concept of entropy)
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Third Law – The entropy of a crystalline substance at absolute zero is zero. For the purposes of this course, we can
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This note was uploaded on 01/27/2010 for the course MCB 450 taught by Professor Mintel during the Fall '07 term at University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign.

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mcb450-3f09 - Lecture 3 Thermodynamics of Biological...

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