mcb104 handout week 13

mcb104 handout week 13 - P OPULATION GENETICS H ardy...

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POPULATION GENETICS Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium states that there is a stable frequency distribution of AA, Aa, and aa genotypes in a population in the absence of disturbing forces . These disturbing forces are: 1) Non-random mating between individuals in a population 2) Mutation creating or eliminating alleles in the population 3) Migration of individuals into or out of the population 4) Selection for or against alleles that are beneficial or harmful for the individual 5) Drift —random subsampling of parental alleles gives a slightly different allele frequency between one generation and another. Drift is an especially strong force in cases of founder effect: when a small number of individuals colonize a new habitat. If all genotypes have the same probability of survival, then every generation the distribution of genotypes in the population will be: p 2 + 2pq + q 2 = 1 where p is the frequency of the ‘A’ allele and q is the frequency of the ‘a’ allele.
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